Aristolochia L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 960. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Dutchman's-pipe, aristoloche [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Aristolochia L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000003062. Accessed on: 20 Sep 2020'

General Information

1. Aristolochia L.

Por K. Barringer.

Bejucos leñosos o herbáceos, arbustos o hierbas; estípulas verdaderas ausentes, seudoestípulas amplexicaules algunas veces formadas por la primera hoja de la yema axilar, anchas. Hojas alternas, dísticas, simples, enteras o acorazonadas, pecioladas. Flores solitarias, racemosas o en ripidios, axilares o sobre los tallos más viejos; cáliz tubular, con un utrículo inflado en la base, con un tubo angostado y un limbo agrandado, generalmente de color púrpura, pardo o rojo; pétalos ausentes; estambres fusionados con los estilos formando un ginostemo; ovario 5-6-locular, ínfero. Cápsulas secas, dehiscentes; semillas aplanadas, frecuentemente aladas. Aprox. 400 spp. Regiones tropicales y cálido-templadas del mundo.

Las hojas de numerosas especies sirven de alimento para las larvas de mariposas de los géneros Battus y Parides (Rauscher, 1979).

Bibliografía: Barringer, K.A. Brittonia 35: 171-174 (1983). González, F. Fl. Colombia 12: 1-184 (1990). Pfeifer, H.W. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 115-196 (1966); Taxon. Rev. Pentandrous Sp. Aristolochia 1-134 (1970).

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    • ]. 

    Shrubs or herbs, rarely subshrubs or lianas, usually twining or climbing, rarely erect. Roots often tuberous. Stems woody or herbaceous. Leaves alternate, veins pinnate or palmately 3-7 from base, margin entire or 3-7-lobed. Flowers axillary, sometimes produced from old woody stems, solitary, fasciculate, or arranged in inflorescences. Perianth uniseriate, zygomorphic (in China). Calyx lobes fused; tube often enlarged at or near base to form a utricle, apically cylindric or funnel-shaped, rectilinear or curved; limb ligulate, discoid, or subpeltate; lobes 1-3 (less commonly to 6-dentate). Stamens 6 in 1 series, fully adnate to the style column to form gynostemium; filaments absent; anthers extrorse. Ovary inferior, 6-loculed, 6-angled; carpels fully connate; gynostemium 3- or 6-lobed. Fruit dry capsules, 6-valved, dehiscing from the apex (acropetally) or from the base (basipetally) [or rarely indehiscent]. Seeds flat or plano-convex, with or without wing, with fleshy funicle, persistent on seed as a membranous elaiosome.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    ARISTOLOCHIA L.

    Bejucos herbáceos, lianas o raramente arbustos o árboles. Hojas lobadas o no, frecuentemente cordadas en la base. Flores solitarias o racemosas, axilares, a veces caulifloras, brácteas presentes en la base de los pedúnculos o ausentes; cáliz tubular, bilateralmente simétrico, con un utrículo ovoide e hinchado en la base, un tubo infundibuliforme y un limbo de forma variada, ensanchado y 1–3-lobado; ovario ínfero; flores frecuentemente lúridas y con olor fétido o resinoso. Fruto una cápsula seca septicida y colgante, dehiscente generalmente desde la base hacia arriba, las valvas permaneciendo unidas en el ápice, a veces con septos persistentes y semejantes a una membrana; semillas comprimidas, frecuentemente con alas laterales apareadas.

    Género con 400 a 500 especies, mayormente tropicales; ca 30 especies se conocen en Centroamérica. Se dice que infusiones hechas con los tallos y las raíces son efectivas contra picaduras de culebra y dolores de parto y ocasionalmente se menciona como un agente contra la fiebre, antiséptico y antidiarreico.

    H.W. Pfeifer. Revision of the North and Central American hexandrous species of Aristolochia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 115–196. 1966.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Lianas, rarely upright perennial herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, petiolate, estipulate but an axillary bud often producing a clasping, broadly reni- form leaf (pseudostipule); blade entire or 3 to 7-lobed, often cordate, palmately or pinnately veined, variable. Flowers axillary, solitary, perfect, epigynous, zygo- morphic. Calyx gamosepalous, variously inflated, thence more or less contracted, expanding into a 1- to 3-lobed limb. Corolla absent. Stamens typically 6, the anthers sessile and adnate to the style, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary inferior, 6-loculate; placentation axile, the ovules numerous, anatropous. Styles 6, marginally connate, fleshy, with coroniform stigmatic lobes, or essentially capitate. Fruit a capsule, septicidally or septifragally 6-valved, often dehiscing acropetally. Seeds numerous, horizontally compressed in vertical rows, the embryo rudimentary in abundant endosperm.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
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    Herbs or lianas , perennial. Stems erect, twining, or procumbent. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked (evident on young growth, becoming obscure with age in some species); true stipules absent; pseudostipules absent [present]; petiole sometimes very short. Leaf blade membranous to leathery. Inflorescences on new growth or on older stems, axillary, racemes or solitary flowers; bracts present. Flowers: calyx usually mixture of purple, brown, green, or red, bilaterally symmetric, tubular, usually bent or curved, 1- or 3-lobed, not fleshy, base with utricle (basal, inflated portion of calyx surrounding or containing gynostemium); tube narrowed, sometimes extended proximally as cylindric syrinx (tubular or ringlike structure at juncture of tube and utricle, projecting into utricle cavity) and distally as annulus (circular flange at juncture of tube and limb) on limb; corolla absent; stamens 5-6, adnate to styles and stigmas, forming gynostemium; ovary inferior, 3-, 5-, or 6-locular; styles 3, 5, or 6, connate in column. Capsule dry, dehiscent. Seeds flattened or rounded, sometimes winged. x = 6, 7, 8.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    "Cal tubular, irregular, S-shaped or pipe-shaped and 3-lobed at the summit, or straight and with a single unilateral terminal lobe; pet none; stamens in ours 6; anthers sessile, adnate to the style; ovary inferior, 6-locular (in ours); style short and stout; stigma broad, with 6 (in ours) lobes or angles; fr a septicidal, lobed or angled capsule, with numerous compressed, horizontal seeds; herbs or woody vines, usually with broad, alternate, palmately veined lvs, and with small or large fls solitary or fascicled in the axils. 500, cosmop."

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
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    Morphology

    Stamens usually 6 or more, the anthers sessile in a row adnate to the style or dorsal side of the stigma

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ovary inferior, usually 6-locular; style short, 3–6-lobed at apex

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Capsule septicidally dehiscent, with 6 valves or splitting through the placentas

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Seeds compressed, mostly winged all round or thick with an elaiosome.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves entire or mostly 3–7-lobed, usually cordate, 3–7-nerved, sometimes with an undeveloped axillary stipule-like leaf

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Erect, twining or scrambling perennial herbs or shrubs

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers irregular, solitary or in fascicles, axillary, with coloured perianth, adnate to ovary below, elongate tubular, variously bent, usually inflated at base around the style, hairy inside, narrowed at the throat; limb open or recurved, entire or 3–6-lobed

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Perennial herbs or shrubs, erect, scrambling or climbing, often with a fetid smell.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stamens usually 6, rarely more; anthers sessile, adnate to the stylar column.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Perianth coloured, tubular; the tube constricted briefly above its attachment to the ovary apex, then abruptly inflated into a subglobose or oblong–ellipsoid utricle, cylindrical or funnel-shaped above the utricle and straight or variously bent, expanding into a very variable, sometimes unilateral, entire or 3–6-lobed limb.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually zygomorphic, solitary, fasciculate or in racemose inflorescences, sometimes very large.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves entire or 3–7-lobed, usually cordate, 3–7-nerved, sometimes with an axillary stipule-like leaf.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Seeds numerous, usually with a peripheral wing, often ± covered on one side by the thickened raphe.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, usually merging imperceptibly into the pedicel, usually 6-locular; style with 3–6 stigmatic lobes.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fruits capsular, 6-valved, dehiscing septicidally.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Liana herb

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    shrub tree

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Pfeifer, H. W. 1966. Revision of the North and Central American hexandrous species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 1-114. Pfeifer, H. W. 1970. A Taxonomic Revision of the Pentandrous Species of Aristolochia. [Storrs.]

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Dutchman's-pipe, aristoloche [Greek aristolocheia, birthwort, from aristos, best, and lochia, delivery, in reference to ancient use of herb as aid in childbirth]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Aristolochiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).