Argemone L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 508. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Prickly-poppy [a poppylike herb mentioned by Pliny]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Argemone L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000002974. Accessed on: 22 Feb 2020'

General Information

ARGEMONE L.

Argemone mexicana L., Sp. Pl. 508. 1753.

Hierbas espinosas, hasta 80 cm de alto, glabras y glaucas, látex amarillo. Hojas hasta 20 cm de largo y 8 cm de ancho, pinnatífidas con espinas terminales en cada lobo, sésiles. Flores grandes, solitarias y terminales, abrazadas por una bráctea foliosa; sépalos 3, ca 15 mm de largo, caducos; pétalos 6, ca 20 mm de largo, amarillos; estambres numerosos; estilo corto, estigma grueso. Cápsula elipsoidal, 2–3.5 cm de largo, aculeada, 4–6-valvada; semillas numerosas, globosas, 2 mm de diámetro, conspicuamente foveoladas.

Común en áreas perturbadas en todas las zonas del país; 0–1250 m; fl y fr todo el año; Neill 4626, Stevens 5737; desde el sur de los Estados Unidos hasta Argentina, también en las Antillas, naturalizada en el Viejo Mundo. Género de ca 28 especies del Nuevo Mundo. "Cardosanto".

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Herbs or rarely shrubs, usually glaucous and 'armed with prickles, the juice or sap yellowish; leaves alternate, sessile, pinnatifid to repand-lobate, the lobes spinulose-dentate and rigidly spined terminally; flowers large, solitary, terminal, or terminal on short axillary branches and thus appearing somewhat racemose or cymose, usually yellow or cream, rarely in some species red or purple; buds erect; sepals 2 or 3, usually bearing prickles, early caducous; petals 4-6, large and showy; stamens many; ovary ovoid to obovoid, many-ovulate, with 3-6 parietal placentae, usually armed; style short; stigma depressed, the lobes radiating from the center; capsule usually oblong, spiny, opening by 3-6 valves at the top; seeds crested, scrobiculate.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs , annual or perennial, caulescent, glaucous, from transitory or persistent taproots; sap white to orange. Stems leafy, branching. Leaves sessile; basal rosulate, cauline alternate; blade unlobed or commonly shallowly to deeply 1×-lobed; margins dentate, each tooth terminated by prickle; surfaces glaucous, often mottled over veins, unarmed or prickly, glabrous or hispid. Inflorescences terminal, cymose; bracts present. Flowers conspicuous, sometimes subtended by foliaceous bracts; sepals 2 or 3, unarmed or prickly, each with erect, subterminal, hollow horn tipped with prickle; petals 6, in 2 whorls of 3; stamens 20-250 or more; pistil 3-5(-7)-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; style short, to 3 mm in fruit; stigma 3-5(-7)-lobed. Capsules erect, 3-5(-7)-valved, grooved over sutures, prickly, rarely unarmed, dehiscing from apex ca. 1/3 length, valves separating from framework of vascular elements, to which persistent style and stigma remain attached. Seeds numerous, subglobose, minutely pitted, 1-3 mm, aril present. x = 14.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, usually stout, mostly branched, spiny, bitter yellow lactiferous. Stems mostly erect. Leaves pinnate, lobes repand dentate, teeth apically spiny. Flowers solitary, terminal or arranged in cyme, trimerous; receptacles narrowly conical. Flower buds erect. Sepals (2 or)3, caducous, apex with horned appendices. Petals (4-)6, in 2 whorls, contorted or imbricate in bud, orange, yellow, yellow-white, or white, occasionally pink or mauve. Stamens many, free; filaments filiform or slightly ampliate below middle, apically subulate; anthers linear, nearly basal, bifid, extrorse, curved after dehiscence. Ovary ovoid, conical-ovoid, or nearly elliptic; carpels (3 or)4-6, united; ovules many; styles very short or absent; stigmas as many as carpels, actinomorphic. Capsule spiny, rarely not spiny, apex divided for a short distance into 3-6 valves, rarely parting nearly to base. Seeds many, spheroidal; caruncle very small or absent, seed coat tessellate.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    "Stems, lvs, and sep spiny; sep generally 3; pet generally 6; ovary unilocular, with 4–6 parietal placentas; style short or none; stigma dilated, 4–6-radiate; capsule spiny, the upper third opening by valves; coarse herbs with thistle-like foliage and large fls terminating the branches; juice in our spp. yellow. 20, New World."

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Seeds pitted.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Capsule opening by valves at the top

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stigmas radiating

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary with 4–7 placentas

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens numerous

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–6, yellow

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 2–3

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Carpels 3 (4–6); stigmas the same number as the carpels and alternating with the placentas.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Capsule usually spiny.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stamens numerous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herbs (rarely perennial and somewhat shrubby) with yellow latex.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves pinnate-lobed or incised, usually spiny.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Sepals 3, horned at the apex.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Petals 6.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers large, terminal or cymose

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Sepals (2–)3(–6) with a subterminal terete horn ; outer surface usually sparsely prickly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Petals 6, normally in 2 whorls of 3, usually white or yellow

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Anthers basifixed ; filaments filiform

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Carpels (3–)4–6(–7) ; stigmatic lobes same number as carpels and opposite the placentas

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Capsule opening by means of valves

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Seeds brown-black, up to 3 mm. in diameter ; embryo larger than in other genera, i.e. about 2/3 seed-length.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves glaucous, sessile, pinnately lobed or incised with a dentate prickly margin, and often the surface prickly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stems glaucous, erect to 1.5 m. high, unarmed to prickly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annual or biennial herbs, sometimes perennial and shrubby

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herbs shrubs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Temperate, subtropical, and to a lesser extent tropical regions of the New World; naturalized in Old World.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Ownbey, G. B. 1958. Monograph of the genus Argemone for North America and the West Indies. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 1-159. Ownbey, G. B. 1961. The genus Argemone in South America and Hawaii. Brittonia 13: 91-109. Prain, D. 1895. An account of the genus Argemone. J. Bot. 33: 129-135, 176-178, 207-209, 307-312, 325-333, 363-371. Stermitz, F. R., D. E. Nicodem, Wei C. C., and K. D. McMurtrey. 1969. Alkaloids of Argemone polyanthemos, A. corymbosa, A. chisosensis, A. sanguinea, A. aurantiaca and general Argemone systematics. Phytochemistry 8: 615-620.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Prickly-poppy [a poppylike herb mentioned by Pliny]

     Information From

    Papaveraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).