Argemone mexicana L., Sp. Pl. 508. 1753.
Hierbas espinosas, hasta 80 cm de alto, glabras y glaucas, látex amarillo. Hojas hasta 20 cm de largo y 8 cm de ancho, pinnatífidas con espinas terminales en cada lobo, sésiles. Flores grandes, solitarias y terminales, abrazadas por una bráctea foliosa; sépalos 3, ca 15 mm de largo, caducos; pétalos 6, ca 20 mm de largo, amarillos; estambres numerosos; estilo corto, estigma grueso. Cápsula elipsoidal, 23.5 cm de largo, aculeada, 46-valvada; semillas numerosas, globosas, 2 mm de diámetro, conspicuamente foveoladas.
Común en áreas perturbadas en todas las zonas del país; 01250 m; fl y fr todo el año; Neill 4626, Stevens 5737; desde el sur de los Estados Unidos hasta Argentina, también en las Antillas, naturalizada en el Viejo Mundo. Género de ca 28 especies del Nuevo Mundo. "Cardosanto".
Herbs or rarely shrubs, usually glaucous and 'armed with prickles, the juice or sap yellowish; leaves alternate, sessile, pinnatifid to repand-lobate, the lobes spinulose-dentate and rigidly spined terminally; flowers large, solitary, terminal, or terminal on short axillary branches and thus appearing somewhat racemose or cymose, usually yellow or cream, rarely in some species red or purple; buds erect; sepals 2 or 3, usually bearing prickles, early caducous; petals 4-6, large and showy; stamens many; ovary ovoid to obovoid, many-ovulate, with 3-6 parietal placentae, usually armed; style short; stigma depressed, the lobes radiating from the center; capsule usually oblong, spiny, opening by 3-6 valves at the top; seeds crested, scrobiculate.
Herbs or subshrubs , annual or perennial, caulescent, glaucous, from transitory or persistent taproots; sap white to orange. Stems leafy, branching. Leaves sessile; basal rosulate, cauline alternate; blade unlobed or commonly shallowly to deeply 1×-lobed; margins dentate, each tooth terminated by prickle; surfaces glaucous, often mottled over veins, unarmed or prickly, glabrous or hispid. Inflorescences terminal, cymose; bracts present. Flowers conspicuous, sometimes subtended by foliaceous bracts; sepals 2 or 3, unarmed or prickly, each with erect, subterminal, hollow horn tipped with prickle; petals 6, in 2 whorls of 3; stamens 20-250 or more; pistil 3-5(-7)-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; style short, to 3 mm in fruit; stigma 3-5(-7)-lobed. Capsules erect, 3-5(-7)-valved, grooved over sutures, prickly, rarely unarmed, dehiscing from apex ca. 1/3 length, valves separating from framework of vascular elements, to which persistent style and stigma remain attached. Seeds numerous, subglobose, minutely pitted, 1-3 mm, aril present. x = 14.
Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, usually stout, mostly branched, spiny, bitter yellow lactiferous. Stems mostly erect. Leaves pinnate, lobes repand dentate, teeth apically spiny. Flowers solitary, terminal or arranged in cyme, trimerous; receptacles narrowly conical. Flower buds erect. Sepals (2 or)3, caducous, apex with horned appendices. Petals (4-)6, in 2 whorls, contorted or imbricate in bud, orange, yellow, yellow-white, or white, occasionally pink or mauve. Stamens many, free; filaments filiform or slightly ampliate below middle, apically subulate; anthers linear, nearly basal, bifid, extrorse, curved after dehiscence. Ovary ovoid, conical-ovoid, or nearly elliptic; carpels (3 or)4-6, united; ovules many; styles very short or absent; stigmas as many as carpels, actinomorphic. Capsule spiny, rarely not spiny, apex divided for a short distance into 3-6 valves, rarely parting nearly to base. Seeds many, spheroidal; caruncle very small or absent, seed coat tessellate.
"Stems, lvs, and sep spiny; sep generally 3; pet generally 6; ovary unilocular, with 4–6 parietal placentas; style short or none; stigma dilated, 4–6-radiate; capsule spiny, the upper third opening by valves; coarse herbs with thistle-like foliage and large fls terminating the branches; juice in our spp. yellow. 20, New World."
Capsule opening by valves at the top
Carpels 3 (4–6); stigmas the same number as the carpels and alternating with the placentas.
Annual or biennial herbs (rarely perennial and somewhat shrubby) with yellow latex.
Leaves pinnate-lobed or incised, usually spiny.
Flowers large, terminal or cymose
Sepals (2–)3(–6) with a subterminal terete horn ; outer surface usually sparsely prickly
Petals 6, normally in 2 whorls of 3, usually white or yellow
Anthers basifixed ; filaments filiform
Carpels (3–)4–6(–7) ; stigmatic lobes same number as carpels and opposite the placentas
Capsule opening by means of valves
Seeds brown-black, up to 3 mm. in diameter ; embryo larger than in other genera, i.e. about 2/3 seed-length.
Leaves glaucous, sessile, pinnately lobed or incised with a dentate prickly margin, and often the surface prickly
Stems glaucous, erect to 1.5 m. high, unarmed to prickly
Ownbey, G. B. 1958. Monograph of the genus Argemone for North America and the West Indies. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 1-159. Ownbey, G. B. 1961. The genus Argemone in South America and Hawaii. Brittonia 13: 91-109. Prain, D. 1895. An account of the genus Argemone. J. Bot. 33: 129-135, 176-178, 207-209, 307-312, 325-333, 363-371. Stermitz, F. R., D. E. Nicodem, Wei C. C., and K. D. McMurtrey. 1969. Alkaloids of Argemone polyanthemos, A. corymbosa, A. chisosensis, A. sanguinea, A. aurantiaca and general Argemone systematics. Phytochemistry 8: 615-620.
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