Alternanthera Forssk.
  • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 28, 59. 1775.
  • [Latin alternans, alternating, and anthera, anther, referring to the alternation of pseudostaminodes and stamens]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Alternanthera Forssk. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000001413. Accessed on: 14 Jun 2021'

General Information

Herbs annual or perennial, ascending or creeping; stem much branched. Leaves opposite, margin entire. Flowers perfect, in sessile or peduncled heads, solitary in axils of bracts. Bracts and bracteoles persistent, membranous. Tepals 5, often unequal, membranous. Stamens 2-5; filaments connate into a tube or a cup at base; anthers 1-loculed; pseudostaminodes entire, dentate, or laciniate. Ovary globose or ovoid; ovule 1, pendulous; style short or long; stigma capitate. Utricles globose or ovoid, indehiscent, falling off with perianth. Seeds lenticular, vertical.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    ALTERNANTHERA Forssk.

    Hierbas, subarbustos o a veces arbustos, anuales o perennes, tallos postrados, ascendentes, erectos, escandentes o algo trepadores, a veces flotantes; plantas hermafroditas (sólo A. peruviana (Moq.) Suess. es dioica). Hojas opuestas, más o menos decurrentes sobre el pecíolo, glabras o densamente pubescentes con tricomas simples o dendríticos, a veces estrellados; subsésiles o pecioladas. Inflorescencia de capítulos axilares o terminales, sésiles en las axilas de las hojas y ramas o pedunculados y generalmente arreglados en estructuras tirsoides, brácteas lanceoladas, ovadas o suborbiculares, glabras o pubescentes con tricomas simples o dendríticos, bractéolas ovadas o lanceoladas, cimbiformes, frecuentemente encorvadas, tan largas como la flor o ligeramente más largas, glabras o pubescentes con tricomas simples, gloquidiados o dendríticos, cresta presente o ausente, flores solitarias, sésiles o pediceladas; tépalos 5, lanceolados, oblongos u ovados, iguales o desiguales, libres hasta la base, membranáceos o escariosos, glabros o pubescentes con tricomas simples y cortos, a veces casi tan largos como los tépalos, gloquidiados o dendríticos, 1-, 3- ó 5-nervios, blancos, cremas, verdes o cafés; estambres 3 ó 5, filamentos más o menos unidos en un tubo y sin lobos, anteras uniloculares; pseudoestaminodios angostamente triangulares, ligulados u oblongos, agudos, dentados o laciniados en el ápice, más cortos a más largos que las anteras; ovario 1-ovulado, estilo corto y obsoleto o alargado, estigma capitado. Utrículo membranáceo e indehiscente; semillas sin arilo; flores a veces partiéndose arriba de las bractéolas cuando maduras.

    Este género probablemente comprende ca 100 especies y es más diverso en las zonas tropicales y cálido-templadas de América, algunas especies crecen en las altas elevaciones de los Andes, 5 especies son nativas del Viejo Mundo donde además hay varias especies ruderales americanas introducidas; 7 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua, incluidas 6 nativas y 1 cultivada, y además 3 especies y 1 variedad se esperan encontrar. Algunas especies se usan como plantas ornamentales.

    J. Mears. The nomenclature and type collections of the widespread taxa of Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 129: 1–21. 1977.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers perfect, bracteate and bibracteolate, sessile or subsessile in spikes or glomes. Sepals 5, discrete, hypogynous, concave, subequal or strongly dissimilar, white to purple, the bases often indurate. Stamens 3-5, the filaments flattened and united below into an entire or appendiculate tube; anthers 2-locellate, oblong, introrse, medially attached. Ovary globose to obovoid, often compressed, 1 -locular, 1-ovulate; ovule carn-pylotropous on an elongate funicle; stigma 1, capitate or obscurely bilabiate, on a short or elongate style. Fruit a membranaceous utricle, indehiscent; seeds cochleate-orbicular, smooth. Glabrous to copiously pubescent erect, scandent or prostrate annuals or perennials. Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate, entire to denticulate, glabrous to densely pubescent, mostly herbaceous. Inflorescences of axillary and terminal sessile or pedunculate spikes or glomes. This genus of over 100 species is best developed in the Americas, although many species are ubiquitous weeds. Some species are cultivated for their ornamental inflorescences and others are planted as tufted border plants and soil binders.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs, annual or perennial. Stems prostrate, decumbent, ascending, erect, or floating, indumentum of simple trichomes. Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate; blade lanceolate to ovate, ovate-rhombic, or obovate-rhombic, margins entire. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, sessile or pedunculate, several-flowered cylindric spikes or globose heads, without immediately subtending leaves; bracts and bracteoles scarious. Flowers bisexual; tepals 5, distinct; stamens 3-5; filaments connate basally into tube or short cup; pseudostaminodes 5, alternating with stamens; ovule 1; style 1, ca. 0.2 mm; stigma capitate or rarely 2-lobed. Utricles compressed, ovoid or obovoid, indehiscence. Seeds 1, reddish brown, lenticular or ovoid-oblong.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Morphology

    Perianth segments 5, free, equal or unequal, glabrous or furnished with smooth or denticulate hairs.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens 2–5, some occasionally without anthers, the filaments distinctly monadelphous at the base into a cup or tube, alternating with large and dentate or laciniate to very small pseudostaminodes (rarely these obsolete), anthers unilocular.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Style short, stigma capitate.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ovary with a single pendulous ovule.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit an indehiscent capsule, thin-walled or sometimes corky, seeds more or less lenticular.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences of sessile or pedunculate heads or short spikes, axillary, solitary or clustered, bracteate.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary in the axil of each bract, bibracteolate, bracts persistent, the perianth falling with the fruit, bracteoles persistent or not.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs, prostrate or erect to floating or scrambling, with entire, opposite leaves.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs, prostrate or erect to floating or scrambling, with entire opposite leaves

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Herbes'souvent rampantes, parfois aquatiques.'Feuilles'opposées, entières.'Inflorescences'axillaires en épis ovoïdes ou capitules globuleux blanc crème.'Fleurs ☿ accompagnées d'une bractée et de 2 bractéoles de mêmes consistance et couleur que le périgone; périgone scarieux, actinomorphe ou comprimé, à 5 segments persistants autour du fruit; étamines 5 ou 3, soudées à la base; pseudostaminodes en forme de dent ou rubanés et alors laciniés ou dentés au sommet, parfois très réduits (ou absents?; anthère à 2 loges; ovaire 1-ovulé, obovoïde ou piriforme, souvent comprimé ou ailé; style court, à stigmate capité.'Fruit'souvent aplati ±, obcordiforme ou obovoïde, indéhiscent.'Graines ± lenticulaires.\n\t\t\t\tEnviron 170 espèces, surtout tropicales et américaines; 6 au Congo belge dont plusieurs sont des mauvaises herbes envahissantes.

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Seeds ± lenticular.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Fruit an indehiscent capsule, thin-walled or sometimes corky

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Ovary with a single pendulous ovule; style short; stigma capitate

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Stamens 2–5, some occasionally without anthers; filaments distinctly monadelphous at the base into a cup or tube, alternating with large and dentate or laciniate to very small pseudostaminodes (rarely these obsolete); anthers unilocular

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Perianth-segments 5, free, equal or unequal, glabrous or furnished with smooth or denticulate hairs

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary in the axil of a bract, bibracteolate, bracts persistent, the perianth falling with the fruit, bracteoles persistent or not

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Inflorescences of sessile or pedunculate heads or short spikes, axillary, solitary or clustered, bracteate

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCE

      Mears, J. A. 1978. The nomenclature and type collections of the widespread taxa of Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 129: 1-21.

    • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Included Species

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      [Latin alternans, alternating, and anthera, anther, referring to the alternation of pseudostaminodes and stamens]

       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • F
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • I Flora of North America Association
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • J http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).