Achyranthes L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 204. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Chaff-flower [Greek achyron, chaff, and anthos, flower]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Achyranthes L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000000251. Accessed on: 27 Feb 2020'

General Information

Herbs or subshrubs. Stem with conspicuous nodes; branches opposite. Leaves opposite, petiolate. Spikes terminal or axillary, erect. Flowers reflexed or spreading, perfect, with 3 bracts; midvein of bracteoles spiny, long, excurrent. Tepals 4 or 5, membranous, apex awn-pointed, rigid in fruit. Stamens 5, rarely 4 or 2, shorter than perianth; filaments connate into a short cup at base, pseudostaminodes fringed; anthers 2-loculed. Ovary oblong; style linear, persistent; stigma capitate. Utricles ovoid-oblong, ovoid, or subglobose, falling off with tepals and bracteoles. Seed oblong, lenticular.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    ACHYRANTHES L.

    Achyranthes aspera L., Sp. Pl. 204. 1753. A. aspera var. indica L.; A. indica (L.) Mill.

    Hierbas, a veces sufruticosas en la base, perennes, 0.4–1.5 (–2) m de alto, con tallos erectos o escandentes, tallos y ramas glabros y escasamente pubescentes hacia arriba o más o menos densamente pubescentes, con tricomas simples de hasta 1 mm de largo; hermafroditas. Hojas opuestas, elípticas, ovadas, obovadas o suborbiculares, (1–) 2–12 (–18) cm de largo y (1–) 2–7 cm de ancho, abruptamente atenuadas en el ápice, cuneadas o largamente atenuadas en la base, subglabras o pubescentes, densamente en el envés, con tricomas simples y rectos de 0.2–0.7 mm de largo; pecioladas. Inflorescencia de espigas 2–45 cm de largo, terminales en el tallo y las ramas, y en las axilas de las hojas caulinares superiores, brácteas ovadas, deflexas cuando maduras, 2.5–3.8 mm de largo, glabras dorsalmente, margen con tricomas de 0.1–0.3 mm de largo, nervio principal formando una cerda recta y aplanada que excede en un 20–50% la longitud total de la bráctea, bractéolas obviamente más cortas que la flor, ovadas, 2.7–4.2 mm de largo, dorsalmente glabras, margen con tricomas simples de 0.1 mm de largo, nervio principal conspicuamente engrosado, formando una espina fuerte y recta que excede en un 40–60% la longitud total de las bractéolas, endurecida en la base y cortamente connada, cresta ausente, flores solitarias; tépalos 5, lanceolados o angostamente ovados, iguales o algo desiguales, los externos 3.6–7.2 mm de largo, los internos 3.2–6.8 mm de largo, acuminados o atenuados en el ápice, libres en la base, hialinos en el margen, glabros, escariosos, 3 (–5)-nervios, los internos generalmente 1-nervios; estambres 5, filamentos filiformes de 1.4–2.6 mm de largo, unidos en una cúpula poco profunda, sin lobos, anteras biloculares; pseudoestaminodios de contorno rectangular, mucho más cortos que los filamentos, truncados en el ápice, con un apéndice dorsal fimbriado; ovario 1-ovulado, estilo delgado de 0.8–1 mm de largo, estigma penicilado. Utrículo cortamente cilíndrico con un collar en el ápice, membranáceo, indehiscente; semilla cortamente cilíndrica o angostamente ovoide, 1.6–2.5 mm de largo, apenas reticulada, sin arilo; flor cayendo junto con las bractéolas en la madurez.

    Común, en sitios ruderales en todo el país; 0–1300 m; fl y fr jul–mar; Croat 39023, Stevens 16352; ampliamente distribuida en las regiones tropicales y templadas, introducida en América. La longitud de los tépalos y el tamaño de las hojas incrementa con la elevación y hay una tendencia a mayor indumento en las plantas con hojas más pequeñas y tépalos cortos. El nivel actual de conocimiento no nos permite reconocer taxones infraespecíficos para las plantas nicaragüenses. Género con ca 8 especies, nativo de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del Viejo Mundo, sólo esta especie introducida en América.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Flowers perfect, bracteate and bibracteolate, subsessile in elongate spikes. Sepals 4-5, discrete, hypogynous, concave, subequal, obscurely 3-5 nerved, occa- sionally pungent. Stamens 2-5, the filaments flattened and united below forming an appendiculate tube; anthers 4--locellate, introrse, medially attached. Ovary obovoid, 1-locular, 1-ovulate; ovules campylotropous on elongate flattened funicles; style 1, filiform; stigma 1, capitate. Fruit a membranaceous turbinate indehiscent utricle; seeds cochleate-orbiculate, reddish brown. Glabrous to pubescent erect or decumbent annual or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, short- petiolate, scantily appressed strigose to sericeous, deciduous. Inflorescences of terminal and axillary spikes, the flowers deflexed in age, the spinose tips of the bracts not uncinate.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
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    Herbs, perennial or annual. Stems erect to ascending. Leaves opposite, petiolate; blade elliptic, ovate to orbiculate, or broadly rhombate, margins entire. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, pedunculate, elongate, many-flowered, simple spikes or few-branched panicles; flowers crowded together at tips, becoming more widely spaced toward base. Flowers bisexual, often becoming deflexed with age; tepals 4 or 5, basally connate, without ornamentation, coriaceous, becoming indurate in fruit, ± glabrous; filaments basally connate into short tubes or cups; anthers 4-locular; pseudostaminodes 5; ovary obovoid or turbinate; ovule 1; style elongate; stigma 1, capitate. Utricles enclosed by and falling with indurate tepals, elliptic or cylindric, membranous, indehiscent. Seeds 1, inverted, obovoid or ovoid, smooth.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    "Fls perfect; sep 4–5, distinct, erect, firm-chartaceous; stamens connate below to form a short tube with (4)5 alternating filaments and as many alternating sterile lobes; anthers tetrasporangiate and bilocular; style solitary, with a capitate stigma; ovule one; utricle membranous, indehiscent; herbs with opposite, petiolate, entire lvs and greenish fls in elongate, terminal and axillary spikes. 100, Old World."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
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    Morphology

    Perianth-segments 4–5, 1–3(–5)-nerved, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, aristate with the excurrent midrib, indurate in fruit especially at the base

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Bracteoles spinous-aristate with the excurrent midrib, the lamina forming short and free to longer and adnate membranous wings

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Stamens 2–5; filaments filiform, monadelphous, alternating with quadrate to broadly quadrate-spathulate pseudostaminodes, these simple and dentate or fimbriate, or furnished with a variably developed dorsal scale; anthers bilocular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Ovary with a solitary pendulous ovule, the ovary wall very thin in fruit; style slender; stigma small, truncate-capitate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Herbs with opposite, petiolate, entire leaves

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence a ± slender spike, terminal on the stem and branches, the flowers at first congested and ± patent, finally usually laxer and deflexed; bracts deltoid or ovate, the midrib excurrent in a spine

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary in the bracts, hermaphrodite, bibracteolate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Entire flower with bracteoles falling with the ripening of the cylindrical seed, the deflexed bracts persistent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Endosperm copious.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    This weedy genus, of about five species, mostly of the Old World, is repre- sented by one species in Central America.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Chaff-flower [Greek achyron, chaff, and anthos, flower]

     Information From

    Amaranthaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).