Bryum turbinatum (Hedw.) Turner
  • Muscol. Hibern. Spic.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Bryum turbinatum (Hedw.) Turner. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001177358. Accessed on: 27 May 2020'

Diagnostic Description

Fruiting plants are easily recognized by the broadly pyriform capsule, frequently contracted below the mouth when dry. Vegetatively P. turbinatum can be distinguished from the closely related P. pseudotriquetrum by the indistinct, occasionally bistratose leaf borders, plane, rarely decurrent leaf margins, thinner walled laminal cells and broader leaf bases. The species may also be confused with Gemmabryum caespiticium but that species has a longer excurrent costa and recurved to re volute leaf margins.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Plants medium-sized, loosely caespitose or caespitose, green, yellow-green or reddish green above, brown and frequently shiny below; terricolous. Stems 4-45 mm tall, branching by subperichaetial innovations, red or red-brown, frequently tomentose below; rhizoids red-brown, papillose. Leaves crowded above, frequently distant below, erect and slightly twisted dry, erect-spreading to widespreading wet, generally concave; ovate, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, (0.8-)1.2-2.5 mm long; apex acuminate; margins rarely decurrent, plane above, plane or narrowly recurved below, entire or denticulate above; border indistinct, 1-4 cells wide, cells linear-rhomboidal to linear, incrassate, unistratose to bistratose. Costa mucronate, cuspidate or short excurrent, awn 30-260 µm long; in section round to subround, lamina inserted ventrally, ventral surface cells differentiated, dorsal stereid band strong, stereids in 2-4 rows, dorsal surface cells incrassate, hydroids present between stereid band and guide cells. Upper laminal cells rhomboidal, generally thin-walled, 42-88 µm long, 15-28 µm wide; basal cells quadrate to rectangular, frequently bulging, occasionally reddish below. Propagulae occasionally present, bud-like, axillary. Dioicous. Perichaetia terminal, leaves lanceolate or narrowly triangular, margins recurved below, border indistinct. Seta 15-35 mm long, yellowish brown or reddish brown; capsule pendulous, shortly pyriform, frequently contracted below mouth when dry, yellowish brown to red-brown, urn 0.6-1.4 mm long, neck 0.8-2.0 mm long, wrinkled when dry; exothecial cells irregular in shape, incrassate, smaller towards mouth; peristome double, exostome teeth narrowly oblong-acuminate, yellow below, hyaline above, minutely papillose, endostome segments tapered above, broadly perforated, cilia 2-3, appendiculate, basal membrane high, yellowish, minutely papillose; operculum conical; calyptra not seen; spores 15-23 µm, pale, minutely granulose.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Plants medium-sized, caespitose. Stems 4-45 mm long, tomentose below. Leaves crowded above, erect and slightly twisted when dry; ovate to narrowly ovate, 0.8-2.5 mm long; apex acuminate; margins entire or denticulate above; border indistinct above, 1-4 cells wide, occasionally bistratose; costa mucronate to short-excurrent. Upper laminal cells rhomboidal, generally thin-walled; basal cells frequently bulging. Capsule pendulous, shortly pyriform.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    On soil.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. On soil of streambanks.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    The species is known from North America, Europe, Asia, Japan, North and South Africa. In southern Africa, B. turbinatum is infrequently collected in the central and eastern Cape, Orange Free State, Lesotho and Natal.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro

      Bibliography

    • 1 1982
    • 2 Fl. bras.,1(2): 1-712,1840
    • 3 Magill, RE; van Rooy, J. 1987. Bryaceae. Fl. S. Africa (1,2): 335 - 393.
    • 4 Muscol. Hibern. Spic.
    • 5 van Rooy, J; Retief, E; Meyer, NL. 2017. Bryophytes. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 30 - 88. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

     Information From

    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • A Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Bryaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • B CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).