2. Diphyscium foliosum (Hedw.) Mohr 短颈藓 duan jing xian Index Mus. Pl. Crypt. 3. 1803. Buxbaumia foliosa Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 166. 1801. Type: Europe. Diphyscium granulosum P.-C. Chen, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 58: 34. 7. 1955. Type: China. Sichuan (Szetschwan), Chien-wei (Qian-wei) Co., P.-C. Chen 1106 (holotype PE; isotypes NICH, S). Diphyscium macrophyllum C.-K. Wang & S.-H. Lin, Hikobia 7: 21. 1974. Type: China. Taiwan, Ilan Co., Tatung Hsiang, Mt. Taiping, S.-H. Lin 2804 (holotype TUNGH). Plants small, 3–10 mm high, in clumps or in scattered tufts. Stems simple; central strand absent. Leaves crisped when dry, spreading when moist, 1–5 mm × 0.3–0.6 mm, ligulate or lingulate to somewhat linear or sometimes narrowly oblong-ovate; obtuse to broadly acute, sometimes cucullate at apex; leaf margins entire at base, irregularly crenulate above, often unistratose, sometimes bistratose; costa percurrent, with dorsal and ventral stereid bands; leaf cells bistratose in upper part, unistratose at extreme base; median cells rounded quadrate to rounded hexagonal, 6–11 µm in diameter, pluripapillose; basal cells rectangular, 20–70 µm × 5–10 µm, hyaline, smooth. Axillary hairs 7–13 cells long. Dioicous. Male plants often somewhat smaller than female plants. Perichaetia terminal; perichaetial leaves lanceolate, awn excurrent, papillose. Setae very short, to 0.2 mm long; capsules oblong-ovoid, obliquely asymmetric, ventricose, 2.5–4.5 mm × 1–2 mm, abruptly narrowed at base and mouth; exothecial cells collenchymatous, irregularly shaped, smooth; stomata at base of capsules, superficial; annuli differentiated, consisting of 1–3 rows of thick-walled cells, persistent or deciduous; opercula conic, to 1 mm long, sometimes cucullate, acute; peristome present. Calyptrae narrowly conic, acute, smooth. Spores spherical, 8–13 µm in diameter, papillose.