Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Karasaçakotu


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001109303. Accessed on: 27 May 2020'

General Information

Plants 15-40 cm tall. Rhizome ascending, apex scaly; scales dark brown, narrowly triangular, up to 6 mm, hairlike in upper half, without black middle stripe, entire. Fronds caespitose; stipe 8-15(-20) cm, base conspicuously swollen, thickened, semiterete, abaxially shiny castaneous to blackish purple, with scattered brownish black hairlike scales or subglabrous, adaxially sulcate; lamina triangular-ovate, 9-25 × 4-6(-10) cm, apex acute to acuminate, tripinnate; pinnae 8-13 pairs, alternate, stalked, basal pair largest, triangular, 4-6 × 1.8-2.4 cm, base truncate, bipinnate, apex acute to acuminate; pinnules 5-8 pairs, anadromous, basal pairs largest, triangular, 1.5-3.2 × 0.6-1 cm, base cuneate-truncate, shortly stalked or subsessile, pinnate, apex acute; ultimate pinnules 4-6 pairs, alternate, anadromous, basal pair largest, elliptic to oblong or linear, 5-7 × 2.5-3.5 mm, margin serrate, apex obtuse. Costa obvious, sulcate adaxially, veins obscure, anadromously branching, simple or 2-forked, not reaching margin. Fronds firmly herbaceous to papery, green but brown-green when dry, lamina with 4- or 5-celled, uniseriate hairs, average stomatal guard cell length 54-60 µm; rachis semiterete, lower half abaxially usually shiny castaneous to dark brown, apical part green or stramineous, adaxially sulcate. Sori 1-3(or 4) pairs per pinnule or segment, median on subtending veinlet, confluent at maturity, linear, 1-2.5(-5) mm; indusia white or brownish, linear, membranous, repand to entire, opening toward costa or costule. Spores brown to dark brown, perispore lophate (cristate-alate), with average exospore length 32-37 µm. Plants sexual allotetraploids: 2n = 144.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Roots not proliferous. Stems ascending or short-creeping, infrequently branched; scales dark brown to blackish throughout, narrowly deltate, 2--4(--5) × 0.2--0.5 mm, margins entire or shallowly denticulate to serrulate. Leaves monomorphic. Petiole dark reddish brown proximally, often fading to green distally, lustrous, 2--20 cm, 2/3--2 times length of blade; indument of black filiform scales and minute hairs. Blade deltate, 2--3-pinnate, 2.5--10 × 2--6.5 cm, thick, hairs dark, scattered, minute; base truncate; apex acute to acuminate, not rooting. Rachis greenish throughout or sometimes reddish brown proximally, lustrous, sparsely pubescent. Pinnae in 4--10 pairs, deltate to lanceolate; most proximal (largest) pinnae 1.5--4 × 1--2.5 cm; base obliquely obtuse; segment margins coarsely incised; apex acute. Veins free, evident. Sori 1--numerous pairs per pinna [1--6 pairs per segment], on both basiscopic and acroscopic sides. Spores 64 per sporangium. 2 n = 144.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Perennial with short rhizome. Fronds erect to arching, to 43 cm, stipe initially scaled, lamina firmly herbaceous, narrowly deltoid, 2- or 3-pinnate, pinnae unequally cuneate, pinnules oblong, shallowly lobed to deeply pinnatifid, serrate to dentate, minutely scaled beneath. Sori linear, indusium entire.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Perennial with short rhizome. Fronds erect, crowded, up to 190 mm long, stipe dark brown, glossy, shallowly grooved above, initially sparsely scaled, lamina firmly herbaceous, narrowly deltoid, 2- to 3-pinnate, pinnae unequally cuneate, pinnules oblong, shallowly lobed to deeply pinnatifid, serrate to dentate, minutely scaled beneath. Sori linear, indusium entire.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Çokyıllık, 10-25 cm boyunda demet görünümlü bitkiler. Rizom dik veya yükselici, tepesi kahverengi dar şeritsi veya ipliksi pullarla kaplı. Fıront herdem yeşil; sap ayadan daha kısa, 5-16 cm uzunluğunda, tabanda şişkin, parlak kestane ilâ siyahımsı kızıl kahverengi, bazen üst tarafı yeşil renkli, tabanda seyrek pullu, karın kısmı oluklu; aya 2-3 teleksi, dış hatları üçgensi-mızraksı, 7-20 × 4-10 cm, koyu yeşil, parlak ve derimsi, ekseni yeşil bazen tabanda sap rengi devam eder. Telekler saplı, üçgensi-yumurtamsı, 5-20 çift, almaşlı dizilişli, 4,5- 8 × 0,7-2 cm; telekçik saplı, 4-8 parçalı mızraksı, uç bölmeler sivri uçlu, sivri dişli. Soruslar bölmede 1-7 adet, 2-4 mm uzunluğunda, dikdörtgenimsi, bölme orta damarına yakın, kenarlara uzanmaz; indizyum beyaz zarsı, kenarları düz, şeritsi-dikdörtgenimsi, sorusların üzerini örter. Sporlar kahverengi.

  • Provided by: [E].Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
    • Ecology

      On rock ledges and lava fields, 10, 000 to 13, 000 ft. alt.

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      • Source: [
      • 1
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Cliffs and boulders, to 2100 m.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      At shaded rock bases, 1500-1650 m.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Grows in a wide range of habitats from shaded forest floors to crevices in exposed rock outcrops, 300-2000 m altitude.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Gifberg to Eurasia, Mexico.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Roggeveld Escarpment, Eurasia, and Mexico.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Cape Province, Transkei, Lesotho, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal, as well as Libya, Tanzania, Kenya, Cameroun, Algeria, Morocco, Azores, as well as other Atlantic islands and Reunion, Europe, Asia and Hawaii.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Nationally Preferred Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      KarasaçakotuTurkishTR

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Black spleenwort

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Aspleniaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • B All Rights Reserved
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Flora of North America Association
      Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
      http://www.turkiyeflorasi.org.tr
      Güner, A., Kandemir, A., Menemen, Y., Yıldırım, H., Aslan, S., Ekşi, G., Güner, I. ve Çimen, A.Ö. (edlr.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Florası, Cilt 2. ANG Vakfı Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları. İstanbul.
      • E All Rights Reserved
      • F Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey).
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • G The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).