Blechnum attenuatum (Sw.) Mett.
  • Fil. Hort. Bot. Lips.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Blechnum attenuatum (Sw.) Mett. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001108466. Accessed on: 01 Apr 2020'

Morphology

Rhizome creeping, set with dark brown rhizome scales. Sterile pinnae with bases broadest and wholly adnate to rhachis. Lamina long-decrescent, basal pinnae becoming deltate and then rudimentary at extreme base. Sterile pinna apices attenuate to acute-acuminate. Rhachis usually sunken, deeply sulcate above.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Terrestrial, epilithic or epiphytic. Rhizome creeping to suberect. Fronds tufted, arching, pinnate with pinna bases adnate to rachis, sterile lamina narrowly elliptic to narrowly oblanceolate, 0.31.8 m x 45-360 mm, basal pinnae reduced, glabrous adaxially, subglabrous abaxially, pinnae oblong-acute to linear attenuate, margins entire; fertile lamina similar in size to sterile lamina, pinnae linear, ± 3 mm wide, bases widened and adnate to rachis. Sporangia in linear sori borne on whole length of pinna, with linear, entire indusium.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Plants terrestrial, epilithic or epiphytic. Rhizome short-decumbent, to 12 mm in diameter, set with roots, closely spaced stipe bases, and scales, scales chartaceous, ferrugineous, adnate, lanceolate to subulate, cuneate to cordate, margins variously set with unicellular capitate glands, and short or long, pluricellular, uniseriate hairs, terminating in an oblong thin-walled cell, apex terminates in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 22 mm long, to 2 mm wide. Fronds arching, dimorphic, fertile generally overtop the sterile, sterile to 1.24 m long, fertile short-lived, to 830 mm long; stipe firm, proximally castaneous, stramineous higher up, adaxially sulcate, sterile to 175 mm long, to 10 mm in diameter, fertile to 180 mm long, to 6 mm in diameter, proximally densely scaled, moderately scaled higher up, scales chartaceous, ferrugineous, sessile, linear-flagelliform, cordate to cordate-imbricate, margins irregularly set with unicellular capitate glands, and short or long pluricellular, uniseriate hairs terminating in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 18 mm long, to 1.2 mm wide; lamina firmly herbaceous, pinnatisect, sterile elliptic, to 1.2 m long, to 340 mm wide, fertile elliptic, to 650 mm long, to 170 mm wide; rachis adaxially shallowly sulcate, sulcus not open to that of the costa, pronounced abaxially, pinnae sterile firmly herbaceous to subcoriaceous, dark green abaxially, grey-green abaxially, attenuate towards the base and apex, adnate to the rachis, touching higher up, widely spaced towards the base, linear-attenuate to triangular, entire, with an abruptly widened base, glabrous adaxially and abaxially, to 195 mm long, to 15 mm wide, fertile firmly herbaceous, attenuate towards the base and apex, adnate to the rachis, more widely spaced towards the base, linear-attenuate, entire or shallowly and irregularly lobed, with an abruptly widened base, glabrous adaxially, to 150 mm long, to 2.5 mm wide; costa adaxially shallowly sulcate, pronounced abaxially. Venation evident, pinnately forked, free, in the sterile fronds, free vein branches end near the margin; in the fertile frond the vein ends anastomose to form a near-marginal vascular commissure. Sori linear, extending from above the base to near the apex of the fertile pinnae; indusium firm, brown, linear, erose; sporangium long-stalked, simple, 3-seriate below the capsule, capsule obovate in lateral view, annulus with (17-)20(-22) indurated annulus cells, epistomium 4(-5)-celled, hypostomium 4(-6)-celled. Spores 64 per sporangium, elliptic, monolete, with low reticulate ridges, rugulose, (52-)56.2(-62) x (32-)34.7(-38) µm.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Rhizomatous perennial. Fronds arching, to 1 m long, stipe scaled, sterile lamina firmly herbaceous, elliptic, pinnatifid, dark green above, pale below, basal segments decrescent, narrowly oblong-attenuate, entire, fertile lamina elliptic, pinnate, pinnae linear, sessile. Sori extending most of the length of the fertile pinnae, indusium erose.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Rhizome creeping, up to 450 mm long, 20-34 mm in diameter, set with dark brown, subulate rhizome-scales up to 42 x 3 mm, sometimes spirally twisted when dry. Fronds arching, thinly coriaceous; stipe light brown to stramineous, sulcate, set with occasional scales near base; sterile lamina elliptic, up to 1.8 x 0.22 m, pinnate (occasionally 2-pinnatifid) lower pinnae gradually decrescent; pinnae narrowly oblong-attenuate, entire (occasionally irregularly pinnatifid or slightly undulate), sessile with an abruptly widened base wholly adnate to rhachis and somewhat contiguous, margin narrowly reflexed, upper surface glabrous, lower surface set with occasional scales along costa; fertile lamina elliptic, pinnate; pinnae linear, sessile with an abruptly widened base adnate to rhachis, often recurved or pendent. Sori extending from above base almost to apex of fertile pinnae; indusium dark brown, erose, c. 1 mm broad.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    On tree trunks in mossy forest; 3, 000 to 6, 000 ft. alt.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Terrestrial or lithophytic in forest.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Mesic Grassland. Moist to wet, shaded forests and ravines, often near water.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Terrestrial, epilithic or low-level epiphytes, occurring in moist to wet conditions at waterfalls and along streams, usually in deep shade. Not edaphically bound.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Wet, shady sites, streams and in forests, 100-800 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Terrestrial or lithophytic in forest undergrowth, c. 100-2000 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    The species is widespread in west central tropical and east tropical Africa, and the eastern parts of south tropical and southern Africa.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Cape Peninsula to E Africa and Madagascar.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Cape Province, Transkei, Natal, Swaziland, Transvaal, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Comoro Islands, Mauritius and Reunion.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

    • 1 Blechnaceae, A. H. G. Alston. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Ferns and Fern-Allies Supplement. 1959
    • 2 "Tard. in Mém. I.F.A.N. 28: 201, t. 39, fig. 7 (1953)."
    • 3 Schelpe in J. Linn. Soc. 53: 494 (1952)
    • 4 "Sim F.S.A., 179, t. 25 (1916)"
    • 5 "Fil. Hort. Bot. Lips. 64, t. 3, fig. 1–6 (1856)"
    • 6 Fil. Hort. Bot. Lips.
    • 7 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 8 Klopper, RR. 2017. Pteridophyta. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 114 - 143. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 9 Roux, JP. 2003. Swaziland ferns and fern allies.
    • 10 Roux, JP. 2012. Pteridophytes. 31 - 47. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 11 Schelpe, EACLE; Anthony, NC. 1986. Pteridophyta. In: O.A. Leistner (ed.). Fl. S. Africa : 1 - 278.

     Information From

    Blechnaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • E See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • F All Rights Reserved