Blechnum australe L.
  • Mant. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Blechnum australe L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001108447. Accessed on: 01 Apr 2020'

Morphology

Terrestrial or epilithic. Rhizome thin, widely creeping, terminating in thickened, erect portion. Fronds tufted, erect to arching, pinnate, sterile lamina very narrowly elliptic, 280-560 x 35130 mm, basal pinnae much reduced, glabrous to minutely glandular, pinnae lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat falcate with distinctive mucronate tip, base partially adnate distally, becoming sessile basally, margins entire; fertile lamina somewhat longer than sterile lamina, pinnae contracted laterally, bases remain lobed, basal pinnae not fertile, basal acroscopic lobes of fertile pinnae mucronate. Sporangia in linear sori borne on central portion of pinnae, with linear, continuous, minutely lacerate indusium.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Plants terrestrial or epilithic. Rhizome short-decumbent, to 4 mm in diameter, set with roots, crowded stipe bases, and scales, stoloniferous, stolons to 90 mm long, to 2 mm in diameter, thickening towards the apex, proximally with few roots and widely spaced fronds, fronds crowded towards the apex, scales chartaceous to crustaceous, castaneous, adnate, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, cordate, margins irregularly set with outgrowths terminating in an oblong thin-walled cell, apex terminates in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 7 mm long, to 1.5 mm wide. Fronds erect to arching, dimorphic, fertile generally overtop the sterile, sterile to 540 mm long, fertile to 560 mm long; stipe firm, proximally castaneous, stramineous higher up, adaxially sulcate, sterile to 140 mm long, to 1.2 mm in diameter, fertile to 150 mm long, to 1.2 mm in diameter, initially sparsely scaled, glabrous with age, scales chartaceous, ferrugineous to stramineous, sessile, lanceolate to ovate, cordate to cordate-imbricate, margins irregularly set with outgrowths terminating in an oblong thin-walled cell, apex terminates in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 6 mm long, to 1.3 mm wide; lamina 1-pinnate, sterile narrow elliptic, to 395 mm long, to 80 mm wide, fertile narrow elliptic, to 410 mm long, to 80 mm wide; rachis adaxially shallowly sulcate, sulcus not open to that of the costa, pronounced abaxially, variously set with scales, hairs, and glands, scales chartaceous, ferrugineous to stramineous, filiform, apex terminates in an oblong thin-walled cell, to 3 mm long, to 0.2 mm wide, hairs 2-celled, apical cell enlarged and thin-walled, glands cylindrical, to 0.3 mm long; pinnae firmly herbaceous, attenuate towards the apex, basal pinnae gradually reduced, sessile, adaxially glabrous or variously set with unicellular cylindrical glands similar to those on the rachis, abaxially sparsely set with filiform scales along the costa, often also closely set with cylindrical glands, sterile oblong-acute, often falcate, truncate to cordate, often acroscopically auricled, mucronate, margins with minute transparent teeth, to 43 mm long, to 9.5 mm wide, fertile linear, auriculate, mucronate, often falcate, to 37 mm long, to 2.5 mm wide; costa adaxially shallowly sulcate, pronounced abaxially. Venation evident or obscure, forked, in the sterile frond the free branches end near the margin in an enlarged apex; in the fertile frond the veins form a near-marginal vascular commissure with short excurrent veins extending from it. Sori linear, extending most of the pinna length; indusium firm, brown, linear, repand; sporangium long-stalked, simple, 3-seriate below capsule, capsule broadly elliptic in lateral view, with (12-)13(-14) indurated annulus cells, epistomium 4(-5)-celled, hypostomium 4(-5)-celled. Spores elliptic, monolete, with low, irregular verrucae, (36-)39.3(-42) x (26-)28(-32) µm.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Perennial with branched rhizome and stolons. Fronds erect or arching, to 40 cm long, stipe sparsely scaled, lamina herbaceous, narrowly elliptic, to 35 cm long, 1-pinnate, sterile pinnae oblong-acute, mucronate, base somewhat auriculate, fertile pinnae linear-auriculate, falcate. Sori extending most of the length of fertile pinnae, indusium lacerate.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perennial with branched rhizome. Fronds erect to arching, firm, dimorphic, stipe sparsely scaled, lamina narrowly elliptic, up to 640 mm long, 1-pinnate, sterile pinnae oblong-acute, mucronate, base somewhat auriculate, up to 25 mm long, fertile pinnae linear, falcate, up to 40 mm long. Sori parallel to the costa, extending most of the pinna length, indusium lacerate.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Rhizome creeping, branching, up to 6 mm in diameter, set with brown, nitid, lanceolate-attenuate, entire, concolorous and striped rhizome-scales c. 5.5 x 1 mm. Fronds tufted, erect or arching, firmly membranous or herbaceous, to thinly coriaceous, green, glabrous or glandular; stipe pale brown to stramineous, darker and set with scales basally, less than 1/3 lamina length; lamina very narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, acute or acuminate, up to 500 x 130 mm, pinnate with several pairs of basal pinnae reduced, pinnae edged with transparent cells which form one or two rows of minute teeth in mature fronds; sterile pinnae oblong-acute, mucronate, up to c. 30 x 8 mm, base somewhat auriculate, subsessile to very shortly petiolate; fertile pinnae linear, falcate, mucronate, c. 30 x 3 mm, base conspicuously expanded into two subdeltate, often mucronate, auriculae; rhachis sulcate. Sori extending most of the length of fertile pinnae, expanded base of lower pinnae and reduced pinnae sterile; indusium brown, thinly membranous, erose-lacerate, c. 0.6 mm broad.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland. Shaded streambanks, near waterfalls and shelter of rock overhangs and crevices.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Terrestrial or epilithic, occurring on the seasonally moist, shaded forest floor in leaf- litter. Not edaphically bound.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Rock crevices and forest floors, 150-1200 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    In rock crevices and at shaded boulder bases, 800-1700 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Shaded streambanks and near waterfalls, and in the shelter of rock overhangs and crevices, 250-2100 m.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    The species occurs in east tropical Africa, the eastern part of south tropical Africa and the moister parts of southern Africa.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Gifberg to E Africa, Madagascar and S Atlantic islands.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Kamiesberg Mountains, Little Karoo, widespread in southern Africa, E Africa and S Atlantic Islands.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Cape Province, Transkei, Natal, Lesotho, Orange Free State, Transvaal, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Madagascar, Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

    • 1 Klopper, RR. 2017. Pteridophyta. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 114 - 143. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 2 Mant. Pl.
    • 3 Roux, JP. 2003. Swaziland ferns and fern allies.
    • 4 Roux, JP. 2012. Pteridophytes. 31 - 47. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 5 Roux, JP. 2013. Monilophytes. 26 - 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 6 Schelpe, EACLE; Anthony, NC. 1986. Pteridophyta. In: O.A. Leistner (ed.). Fl. S. Africa : 1 - 278.

     Information From

    Blechnaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • D See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • E All Rights Reserved