Kiggelaria africana L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Kiggelaria africana L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001062869. Accessed on: 24 Sep 2020'

Morphology

Petals broadly obovate, obtuse or subacute, ± 5 mm. long, the basal inner scale oblong, fleshy, 1 mm.

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    Sepals narrowly ovate, slightly keeled, 4–5 mm. long and 2 .5 mm. broad.

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    Female flowers solitary in the upper axils; peduncle ± 5 mm.; pedicels up to 1.5 cm.

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    Filaments ± 1 mm.; anthers oblong, ± 2 mm.

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    Shrub or tree, up to 13 m. tall; bark pale to dark grey, smooth; branchlets ± densely stellately tomentellous.

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    Flowers yellowish-greenish tomentellous, the ♂ in short 3–7-flowered axillary cyme-like racemes; peduncle ± 5 mm.; pedicels up to 7 mm.; basal bracts minute, caducous.

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    Leaf-blades variable in form, size, texture and indument-density, ovate-oblong, elliptic, or lanceolate, apex subacute or obtuse, base cuneate to rounded, papery to firmly chartaceous or subcoriaceous, yellowish stellate-tomentellous to -tomentose, sometimes glabrescent with age, rarely practically glabrous from the beginning except the nerves, entire, undulate or shallowly serrate, 3.5–9(–14) cm. long, 2–5(–6) cm. broad; lateral nerves 6–9 pairs, rather prominent beneath, veins ± parallel to each other, slightly raised; petiole 0.5–1.5(–2) cm. long.

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    Fig. 11.

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    Seeds subglobose, covered with a bright orange-red aril; testa smooth, dark.

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    Capsule globose, almost woody, ± 2 cm. in diameter, yellowish-greenish tomentellous or tomentose, softly warted.

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    Ovary tomentellous and minutely tuberculate; styles glabrous, ± 3 mm. long.

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    Sepals and petals similar, but slightly longer and narrower.

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    Female flowers solitary in the upper axils; peduncles c. 5 mm. long; pedicels up to 1.5 cm. long with 1–2 minute bracts at the base.

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    Sepals narrower as a rule than in male flowers, c. 7 x 2.5–3 mm., narrowly oblong.

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    Petals c. 8 x 3.5 mm., narrowly oblong, subacute at the apex, otherwise as in the male.

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    Ovary ovoid or obovoid, densely puberulous and minutely tuberculate; styles 5, c. 3 mm. long, glabrous or very sparsely puberulous, divergent, free for c. 2 mm., connate below.

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    Fruit 2 cm. in diam., a hard, woody, globose capsule, splitting from the apex into 5 valves, yellowish-green, densely tomentellous, waited.

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    Seeds c. 10, 7 mm. in diam., bright orange-red, viscid, subglobose; testa smooth.

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    Bush or tree up to 13 m. tall, probably evergreen; bark pale grey, smooth; young branches yellowish-brown, stellately tomentellous, the youngest parts often with tufted ferruginous hairs also.

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    Petals 2 mm. long, broadly obovate, slightly keeled, obtuse or subacute at the apex, densely puberulous on both sides, basal scale subfleshy, oblong.

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    Sepals c. 5 x 2.5 mm. narrowly ovate, slightly keeled, subacute at the apex, densely yellowish-puberulous on both sides, free almost to the base.

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    Male flowers yellowish-green, in short 3–7-flowered axillary cymes; peduncle c. 5 mm. long, tomentellous; pedicels similar, 2–7 mm. long with minute, caducous, tomentellous bracts at the base.

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    Leaf-lamina 3.5–9 x 2–5 cm., ovate-oblong, elliptic or lanceolate, apex acute or sometimes rounded, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margin entire, slightly undulate or shallowly and distantly toothed, finely yellowish-stellate-tomentellous above when young, later glabrescent, densely yellowish-stellate-tomentellous below although some forms are eventually glabrescent on both sides; nerves in c. 9 pairs, rather prominent below, veins slightly raised, ± parallel between the nerves; petiole up to 1–4 cm. long, tomentellous.

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    Stamens c. 10; filaments up to 1 mm. long; anthers oblong, 2.2 x 1.3 mm., stellately puberulous.

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    Shrub or tree up to 17 m high, semi-deciduous; bark pale grey, smooth; young branches stellately tomentulose, often rusty. Leaf-blade elliptic or ovoid, 4-11 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse, apiculate, base cuneate to round, margin entire, serrulate, serrate or duplicate-serrate, midrib prominent below, lateral veins 5-9, prominent below, looping near margin, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous or white or rusty stellate, with tomentulose hairy pockets (acarodomatia) in axils of veins below, sometimes discolorous; petiole 0.7-2.5 cm long, channelled, glabrous or tomentulose. Male flowers yellowish-green, in 3-many-flowered axillary cymes; peduncle 0.3-2 cm long, tomentulose; pedicels slender, 0.5-1.5 cm long, tomentulose, minutely bracteate at base. Sepals narrowly elliptic, 3-4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, apex acute, slightly keeled, stellate-pubescent. Petals elliptic, 4.25 mm long, 2.25 mm wide, apex obtuse to rounded, slightly keeled dorsally, stellate, puberulous; basal scale oblong, 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, toothed, fleshy. Stamens 10; filaments up to 1.7 mm long; anthers elliptic, 1.5 mm long, stellately puberulous. Female flowers yellowish-green, solitary in upper axils; pedicels slender, 1.7-2.5 cm long, tomentulose. Sepals narrowly elliptic, 5.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, stellately puberulous. Petals elliptic 5.5-6 mm long, 2 mm wide, stellately puberulous; scales ovoid 2-2.5 mm long, 1-1.25 mm wide. Ovary ellipsoid, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2 mm diam., densely pubescent; style short, divided into (4)5 branches, c. 1.5 mm long, divergent, canaliculate, glabrous in upper part, minutely lobed. Fruit up to 1.5 cm diam., splitting from apex into 5 valves, yellowish-green, densely tomentulose, tuberculate. Seeds bright orange-red, 4-6 mm diam.

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    Dioecious, semideciduous tree with smooth grey bark to 17 m. Leaves elliptic, usually toothed, with hairy pockets in lower vein axils, male flowers in axillary cymes, female flowers solitary in axils, yellowish. Fruits round, pale inside with red seeds.

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    Shrub or tree, up to 17 m high, unarmed, dioecious. Bark pale grey, smooth. Leaves petiolate; blade glabrous or white or rusty stellate, with hairy pockets in axils of veins below. Flowers: male flowers in axillary cymes on long pedicels, female flowers solitary on long pedicels; sepals 5-parted; petals 5, often very similar to sepals, elliptic, each with a fleshy gland at base, yellowish green; Sep.-Dec., Apr.-Jun. Fruit globose, woody, rough; seeds bright orange-red.

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    Dioecious, semi-deciduous tree, up to 17 m tall, with smooth grey bark. Leaves elliptic, usually toothed, with hairy pockets in lower vein axils, male flowers in axillary cymes, female flowers solitary in axils, yellowish. Fruit round, pale inside with red seeds.

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    Habitat

    In forest, usually fairly open forest, kloofs, along streams, in scrub and even in inhospitable places like the mountains.

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    Forest margins and rocky slopes.

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    Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland; Zastron Moist Grassland. Fairly open forest, kloofs, along streams and in scrub.

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    Rocky slopes and forest margins.

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    Distribution

    Namaqualand to tropical Africa.

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    Near Gariep Mouth, Kamiesberg Mountains and Bokkeveld Mountains to SW Cape to tropical Africa.

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      Bibliography

     Information From

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    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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    • B All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
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    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • F Botanic Gardens Conservation International