Solanum lanceifolium Jacq.
  • "Jacq., Collectanea [Jacquin] 2: 286. 1789., 1789."
  • arafia gato


This taxon is accepted by SolanaceaeSource.org

General Description

Fruit a shiny, red or orange, globose, juicy berry, 8-15 mm across; seeds yellowish, flattened, 2.5 mm across.

Vine, 1-100 m long, sometimes shrub-like; stems glabrate to stellate-tomentose, often with stout bristles, armed with short, recurved spines. Leaves 3-25 cm long and 2-10 cm broad, lanceolate to elliptic, entire or usually with sinuate- dentate margins, glabrate to tomentose or hispid with mostly sessile stellae, armed on the midrib or minor veins; petioles mostly armed, less than 1/3 the length of the leaf. Inflorescence lateral, few-to several-flowered; peduncle short, mostly un- branched, 5-15 mm long, filiform, becoming longer and stouter in fruit. Flowers mostly small; calyx 1-2 mm long with the lobes ca. 1 mm long, splitting at the sutures and enlarging in fruit, often armed with straight spines; corolla (Panama) mauve to purple outside, white inside, divided almost to the base, pubescent outside, the lobes often recurving 7-12 mm long; anthers slender and tapering to the tips, converging to form a tube or free, about as long as the corolla lobes.

Vine, 1-4 m. Stems moderately armed with recurved, tan roselike prickles, these 1-2 mm long, the base 1-2 x 0.5-1 mm, densely pubescent with white to tan , porrect-stellate hairs, the stalks nearly absent to 1 mm, multiseriate, the rays 5-8, 0.5-1 mm, unicellular to multicellular, the midpoints nearly absent to 0.5 mm.
Sympodial units difoliate, the leaves geminate, those of a pair slightly unequal.
Leaves simple, the blades 3-7 x 1-3 cm, ovate, chartaceous, slightly discolorous, dark green adaxially, light green abaxially, both leaf surfaces moderately to densely pubescent with hairs like those of the stem but with the midpoints 0.5-1 mm; major veins 3-6 on either side of the midvein, the secondary veins obscure, the midrib abaxially with a few to many recurved pirckles like those of the stem; base acute, often asymmetrical; margin unlobed; apex acute; petioles 0.5-2 cm, with recurved prickles like those of the stem.
Inflorescences 2-3 cm, extra-axillary, unbranched, with 5-15 flowers, apparently all perfect, the axes moderately to densely pubescent with hairs like those of the stem, unarmed; peduncle 0.5-1.5 cm; rachis 1.5-2.5 cm; pedicels 5-10 mm in flower, 10-30 mm in fruit, filiform, expanded distally, spaced 1-3 mm apart.
Flowers apparently all perfect, 5-merous. Calyx 2-4 mm long, the tube 1-2 mm, the lobes 1.5 x 0.5-1 mm, the lobes often reflexed, narrowly triangular, moderately to densely pubescent with hairs like those of the stem, unarmed fruiting calyx 3-5 mm, not accrescent in fruit. Corolla 1-2 cm in diameter, chartaceous, white, stellate, lobed nearly to the base, the lobes 5-10 x1-3 mm, lanceolate, moderately pubescent abaxially with hairs like those of the stem, nearly glabrous adaxially. Stamens 6-7 mm; filaments 1-2 mm long, glabrous; anthers 5-6 x 1-2 mm, attenuate, tapering connivent in bud, connivent to spreading in flower, yellow, the base cordate, the apex obtuse, the pores apical, directed slightly introrsely. Ovary glabrous; style 6-9 x 0.5-0.75 mm, exserted beyond stamens, cylindrical, white, glabrous; stigma 0.5-1 mm wide, green.
Fruit a thin to leathery skinned berry, 8-14 mm in diameter, globose, green when immature, orange to dark red when mature, glabrous.
Seeds 15-25 per fruit, 2-2.5 x 1.5-2 mm, reniform, brown, flattened, the surface netlike with many pits created by small raised ridges.

Solanum lanceifolium Jacq., Collectanea 2: 286. 1789; S. scabrum Vahl; S. sarmentosum Lam.; S. pavonii Dunal; S. hoffmannii Bitter ex Standl. & C.V. Morton; S. enoplocalyx var. mexicanum Dunal.

Trepadoras leñosas, frecuentemente trepando alto, armadas; tallos suavemente tomentosos con tricomas estrellados multiangulados, pediculados, armados con numerosos acúleos recurvados de 1–2 mm de largo. Hojas en pares subiguales, ampliamente ovadas, 4–8 cm de largo, ápice agudo o acuminado, base obtusa o redondeada, enteras, a veces afelpadas, haz con dispersos tricomas porrectos subsésiles, envés suavemente tomentoso con tricomas multiangulados pediculados, los nervios principales a veces armados; pecíolos hasta 3 cm de largo, tomentosos, mayormente armados. Inflorescencias racimos amontonados con 4–12 flores, volviéndose laterales, tomentosos con tricomas estrellados sésiles y cortamente pedicelados, inermes (o menuda e inconspicuamente armados), pedúnculo hasta 1 cm de largo, a veces bifurcado, pedicelos hasta 10 mm de largo; cáliz ca 3 mm de largo, lobado hasta cerca de la 1/2 de su longitud, lobos angostos, los senos redondeados y tomentosos con tricomas multiangulados; corola ca 15 mm de diámetro, blanca o azulada por fuera, profundamente lobada, lobos angostos, por fuera pubescentes, más así distalmente; anteras ca 5 mm de largo. Baya globosa, 0.8–1 cm de diámetro, glabra, anaranjada, lustrosa cuando madura, pedicelos fructíferos algo acrescentes, permaneciendo delgados pero expandidos distalmente, erectos; semillas aplanadas, ca 3 mm de diámetro.

Común, bosques, en todo el país; 500–1300 m; fl y fr todo el año; Moreno 1282, 8494; México al norte de Sudamérica, también en las Antillas. Esta especie es bastante similar a S. volubile, pero difiere en los acúleos más densos y las hojas subenteras; se encuentra en ambientes más alterados que S. adhaerens.

Distribution

Solanum lanceifolium is common in disturbed areas and forest gaps from central Mexico through Central America and the Caribbean into northwestern South America at 100 -1600 (2900) m.

Common Names

NameLanguage
arafia gato

 Information From

MBG Floras Images
http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
  • A Missouri Botanical Garden
  • B Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora de Panama
http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
  • C Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora de Nicaragua
http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
  • D Missouri Botanical Garden
SolanaceaeSource.org
http://solanaceaesource.org/
PBI Solanum Project. 2017. Solanaceae Source. Jan.31st, 2015. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • E All Rights Reserved
  • F
  • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
World Flora Online consortium
http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
World Flora Online Data. 2018.
  • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).