Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
  • Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.
  • PALMA AFRICANA, PALMA DE ACEITE


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000947985. Accessed on: 19 Nov 2019'

General Information

Leaves up to 8 m; segments ca. 120 cm. Fruits ca. 4 cm; ripening from green to yellow to red or black, 4 cm; endocarp black, 3-sided, bearing 3 germination pores. 2n = 32.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist. 280, t. 172. 1763.

    Tallos erectos, hasta 20 m de alto y 22–75 cm de diámetro. Hojas 3–5 m de largo; pinnas 100–160 a cada lado, las medias 100–120 cm de largo y 3–4 cm de ancho, agrupadas y en varios planos; pecíolo 150–200 cm por encima de la vaina. Inflorescencias con pedúnculos 30–45 cm de largo, raquis 20–40 cm de largo; raquillas 100–200, las estaminadas 8–14 cm de largo, con una espina terminal de 0.5–1.5 cm de largo, las pistiladas 10–12 cm de largo, con acumen aguijonoso hasta 2.8 cm de largo; flores estaminadas ca 4 mm de largo, cremas, con olor a anís; flores pistiladas ca 20 mm de largo, blancas. Frutos ampliamente elipsoidales u ovoides a subglobosos, 2–5 cm de largo y 3 cm de ancho, anaranjados en la mitad proximal, cafés a negruzcos en la distal.

    Introducida de Africa, ampliamente cultivada para la extracción de aceite, en la zona atlántica; 0–200 m; fl y fr jun; Stevens 13285; nativa de Senegal a Angola, Zanzíbar y Madagascar. "Palma africana".

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    Tallo erecto, hasta 20 m, ca. 22–75 cm de diám. Pecíolos más allá de la vaina ca. 1.5–2 m. Láminas fo-liares ca. 3–5 m; hojuelas ca. 100–160 por lado, agrupadas y en varios planos, las mayores (del medio) ca.100–120 3–4 cm. Pedúnculos ca. 30–45 cm. Raquis de la infl. ca. 20–40 cm; raquilas ca. 100–200, en lasinfls. masculinas ca. 8–14 cm con una espina terminal ca. 0.5–1.5 cm, en las infls. femeninas ca. 7.5–13 cmcon un acumen aguzado hasta ca. 6 cm. Fls. estaminadas ca. 4 mm, con una intensa fragancia anisada; anterasca. 2 mm; fls. pistiladas ca. 20 mm. Frs. maduros ca. 2–5 2.5–3 cm, ampliamente elipsoides u ovoides a sub-globosos (a menudo labrados por presión mutua), anaranjados en la mitad proximal, café a negruzcos en lamitad distal.

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    Morphology

    Several forms, differing in structure and colour of the fruit, are described in Kew Bull. 1909: 33 and 1914: 285, and in Holland 4: 734.

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    Easily recognizable by its arching, dark-green leaves and straight trunk clothed when young with petiole-bases

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    Fruit partially enclosed in the enlarged calyx and corolla, tipped by stylar remains, very variable in size, ± 3–5.5 × 2–3 cm., somewhat asymmetrical, usually bright orange with dark red, almost black pigmentation in the exposed upper parts; mesocarp ± 5–10 mm. thick, yellowish, oil-rich; endocarp blackish brown, 2–5 mm. thick.

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    Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm.

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    Seed usually 1 only, 2–3 × 1–1.5 cm. with a thin integument; endosperm homogeneous with a narrow central cavity, oil-rich.

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    Inflorescences either male or female, or rarely bearing both male and female, or even more rarely with hermaphrodite flowers, individual palms passing through alternating phases of male and female inflorescence production.

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    Figs. 10 and 11.

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    Crown massive, consisting of 40–50 expanded leaves in a 8/13 phyllotaxis. Leaves to 7.5 m. long in well-grown adults; leaf-base long-persistent, with coarse brown fibres and upward pointing fibre-spines to 35 × 5 mm., ± 10 mm. distant, confined to the sheath-margins; petiole to 1.25 m. long, to 20 cm. wide at the base, distally armed with bulbous-based spines to 4 cm. long by 1 cm. wide at the base, 1–5 cm. distant, representing pulvini and midribs of the basal-most leaflets; rachis semicircular in cross-section proximally, tapering above, with 2 lateral grooves or faces; leaflets eventually 100–150 on each side, inserted rather irregularly in 2 planes, the whole leaf hence plumose, to 120 cm. long, 8 cm. wide (in var. idolatrica A. Chev., a rare mutant, the lamina remaining ± entire, not splitting into leaflets).

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    Trunk to 30 m. tall, usually much less, 30–50 cm. diameter, rarely broader, covered by remains of leaf-bases when young, eventually becoming bare, but in high rainfall areas frequently obscured by epiphytes.

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    Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long.

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    Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.

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    Robust tree palm, in cultivated specimens often flowering while still trunkless.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ecology

    Is cultivated and occurs spontaneously in much of the forest zone from Senegal to Cameroun, being particularly abundant near habitations, in land which has been tilled, and in river valleys.

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    Common Names

    The African Oil Palm

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Bahia
    • Pernambuco
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Espirito Santo

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    PALMA AFRICANA, PALMA DE ACEITE
    dendêPortuguese
    African oil palm, palmier à huile d’Afrique

      Bibliography

     Information From

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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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