Shrubs or small trees to 5 m tall. Spines 1- or 2-forked, 2-4 cm, strong. Leaf blade broadly ovate, 2.5-7.5 X 2-5 cm, thick leathery, glabrous, base rounded to obtuse, apex mucronate, lateral veins obscure. Cymes terminal, (1-)3-flowered. Pedicel 2-3 mm. Flowers fragrant. Sepals very narrowly ovate, 3-6 mm. Corolla white or pink, tube 1.1-1.8 cm, pubescent inside; lobes oblong, 0.9-2.4 cm, overlapping to left. Ovules numerous. Berries bright red to violet, ovoid, 2-5 cm, ca. 16-seeded. Fl. Aug. 2n = 66.
1. Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC., Prodr. 8: 336 (1844). Arduina macrocarpa Eckl., S. African Quart. J. 1: 372 (1830). Tipo: Sudáfrica, no conocido. Ilustr.: Morales, Darwiniana 44: 465, t. 6A (2006).
Por J.F. Morales.
Arbustos 1-2 m; tallos subcilíndricos, glabros o glabrescentes, con escasas espinas furcadas en los nudos. Hojas con pecíolos 1-4 mm; láminas (1.7-)3-7.5 × (1.5-)2-4.5 cm, elípticas, angostamente elípticas a angostamente ovadas, coriáceas, eglandulares, sin coléteres en el nervio central adaxialmente, glabras, la base obtusa o muy levemente cordada, el ápice apiculado, mucronado o mucronulado. Inflorescencias reducidas a 1 ó 2 flores fasciculadas; pedúnculos ausentes o inconspicuos; pedicelos 2.5-4 mm; brácteas c. 1 mm, diminutas. Flores con los sépalos 3-5 mm, angostamente ovados a angostamente ovado-elípticos, el ápice muy acuminado; corola blanca, el tubo 0.9-1.7 cm, la garganta 2-2.5 mm de diámetro, los lóbulos 17-22 × 4-7 mm, obovados a angostamente obovados, extendidos y algo reflexos marginalmente; anteras 3-4 mm; ovario 1.5-2 mm, glabro. Frutos 1.8-2.5(-3) × 1.2-3 cm, rojos al madurar; semillas 6-7 mm. Cultivada. H ( Nelson 8609, MO); ES ( Cruz 222, LAGU); N ( Grijalva 3541, MO). 0-1000 m. (Nativa del S. de África; cultivada en los trópicos.)
Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A. DC., Prodr. 8: 336. 1844; Arduina macrocarpa Eckl.; C. grandiflora (E. Mey.) A. DC.
Arbustos hasta 2 m de alto, látex blanco y espinas furcadas. Hojas opuestas, ovadas, 1.57 cm de largo y 14.5 cm de ancho, ápice espinuloso, base redondeada, coriáceas, nervios secundarios inconspicuos. Inflorescencia fascículo de 1 ó 2 flores axilares blancas; lobos del cáliz lineares, hasta 5 mm de largo; corola hipocrateriforme, tubo 1.21.5 cm de largo, los lobos hasta 2 cm de largo, angostos. Frutos subglobosos u ovoides, carnosos, indehiscentes.
Cultivada en áreas secas, mayormente alrededor de Managua; 40200 m; fl jun; Sandino 4408, Stevens 21928; nativa del sur de Africa. Género paleotropical con ca 20 especies. "Ciruela de Natal".
Fruit 3–5 cm. long when fresh, ovoid, pointed, red and edible when ripe, many-seeded.
Corolla lobes 9–24 mm. long, broadly elliptic, glabrous or pubescent on upper and lower surfaces, overlapping to the left.
Gynoecium glabrous; ovary fusiform and 2–3·5 mm. long in long-styled flowers or conical and up to 1 mm. long in short-styled flowers; style and stigma 6–7 mm. long, the stigma reaching beyond the anthers, or only 2·5–3 mm.; stigma pubescent at apex, not obviously bifid.
Stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla tube; anthers subsessile, 1·25–2 mm. long (1·25 mm. and apparently non-functioning in long-styled flowers, 1·75–2 mm. in short-styled flowers).
Lamina 2·4–7 x 1·7–5·2 cm., broadly to narrowly ovate or subcircular, the apex obtuse, mucronate, the base rounded; upper surface with midrib impressed and lateral nerves faintly raised, usually indistinct; lower surface with midrib prominent and lateral nerves level or ± impressed, very indistinct; margin revolute, not crenate.
Flowers pentamerous, in sessile or shortly pedunculate terminal 1–few-flowered cymes, white, jasmine-scented, heterostylous.
Calyx 2–4·5(7) mm. long; segments narrowly triangular to broader and somewhat foliaceous, glabrous, not ciliate; fleshy triangular dark-coloured scales c. 0·5 mm. long present, variable in number, shortly attached to base of sepals on their margins and inner surface.
Corolla tube 11–18·5 mm. long, glabrous or pubescent on outer surface, sparsely to densely pilose within on the upper 2/3.
Many-stemmed shrub 1–3·7 m. high.
Young stems glabrous, greenish, strongly wrinkled into longitudinal ridges and channels; older twigs similar, with greenish or brownish, often glossy, surface.
Spines usually bifurcate, the axis (2)5–22 mm., first branches (2)3–23 mm. and second branches (2)4–32 mm. long.
Leaves thickly coriaceous, glabrous, often drying discolorous with dark grey to brown upper surface and pale green to brown lower surface; petiole 2–4 mm., glabrous.
Like C. bispinosa but flowers larger, corolla lobes 15-35 mm and fruits 30-50 mm long.
Shrub up to 4 m high, twiggy, densely branched, evergreen, spiny; branches divaricate, glabrous; sap milky; spines once or twice bifurcate, 2-4.5 cm long, arising usually in pairs at the apex of a shoot and decussate to the apical pair of leaves, often bearing an inflorescence in the angle of the fork, persistent, rigid, becoming woody. Leaves coriaceous, broadly ovate to ovate-elliptic or subrotund 2.5-6 cm long and 1.7-3.5 cm broad, truncate to obtuse at the base, apex obtuse to acute, mucronate, glabrous, glossy dark green above, paler below; secondary nerves 5-7 on each side, obscure; petiole short, up to 5 mm long, channelled above; axillary glands conspicuous; stipules 0. Inflorescence cymose, contracted, few-flowered, sometimes reduced to 1, subsessile at the ends of the branchlets or sometimes in the fork of a spine, glabrous; bracts ovate to lanceolate, acuminate 3-4 mm long, deciduous; pedicels up to 3 mm long. Flowers large, variable in size, heterogamous, white, scented. Calyx 4-7 mm long, glabrous; sepals 5, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate. Corolla salver-shaped; tube cylindric, 9-14 mm long, glabrous without, hairy within; lobes 5, oblong to elliptic, 1.5-3.5 cm long and 4-6 mm broad, narrowed towards the base, apex rounded, overlapping to the left, glabrous. Stamens 5, inserted at the middle of the tube, anthers subsessile, of two lengths in different plants, 1.5 mm (and apparently sterile) or 2-5 mm long. Disc 0. Ovary entire, 2-chambered, each with many ovules; style of two lengths in different plants, the longer about 6 mm long(in flowers with short, sterile anthers), the shorter 3-4 mm long, thus the stigma either level with or distinctly below the anthers; stigma ellipsoid. Fruit a berry, ovoid, pointed, up to 5 cm long and 3.5 cm in diameter, red, with milky latex, edible. Seeds 16 or more, peltate, flat, irregularly elliptical in outline; testa papillose, hard; embryo straight; cotyledons broadly elliptical, slightly longer than the radicle; endosperm plentiful, horny.
A much branched shrub, up to 6 m high. Bark greyish, smooth, longitudinally fissured or outer bark peeling off in flakes. Branches with longitudinally fissured bark; branchlets greyish green, glabrous. Spines furcate or bifurcate, mostly robust, up to 5.5 cm long. Leaves opposite; petiole 1-6 mm long, glabrous, with colleters in the axils; blade shiny above or on both sides, coriaceous when fresh and when dried, ovate, elliptic, oblong or orbicular, 1-2 x as long as wide, 1.3-7.2 x 0.9-5.3 cm, acute or mucronate at the apex, cordate to almost cuneate at the base, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, glabrous on both sides, revolute at the margin, with 4-9(11) pairs of secondary veins, rather conspicuous above or inconspicuous on both sides; tertiary venation reticulate, inconspicuous. Inflorescence terminal, rather lax, few-(1-4)-flowered. Peduncle ca 4 mm long, glabrous; pedicels 3-4 mm long, glabrous. Flowers fragrant. Sepals ovate to narrowly oblong, 2-2.6 x as long as wide, 2-4.5(7) x 1-2 mm, acute at the apex, auriculate at the base, glabrous out- and inside, with or without colleters at the base inside, not ciliate. Corolla white, glabrous outside, not ciliate at the lobes, with a pubescent belt from 1.2-1.8 mm above the base to ca 1 mm below the mouth; tube usually widened at the base and more or less around the stamens, sometimes narrowed at the mouth, (9)10.5-18.5 mm long, lobes ovate or broadly ovate, 0.5-2.6 x as long as the tube, 4.5-24 x 4-7 mm, obtuse at the apex, auriculate at the base, overlapping to the left in bud. Stamens with apex ca 2 mm below mouth of corolla tube, inserted at or near the middle of the corolla tube, at 4.8-9.1 mm from the base; filaments 0.2-0.6 x 0.2-0.4 mm, pubescent inside; anthers 1.2-2.3 x 0.9-1.8 mm, acute at the apex, glabrous. Pistil: ovary cylindrical, acute at the apex, 1-3.5 x 0.7-1.6 mm, glabrous; style 1.5-2 x 0.2-0.3 mm, glabrous; pistil head 1.4-2 x 0.6-0.8 mm, glabrous or minutely pubescent; stigmoid apex 0.3-0.4 mm long. Fruit red or purple, globose, ovoid or ellipsoid, 2.7-6 x 2-3 cm, many-seeded. Seeds obliquely elliptic, ovate or more or less orbicular, 4-6 x 3.5-4.5 x 1.5 mm. Embryo 3.5-4.8 mm long; cotyledons 1.7-2.3 x 1-1.3 mm; rootlet 1.3-1.8-0.6 mm. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
Carissa macrocarpa grows as thin shrub up to 4 meters in height. The stems have grooves and ridges as well as bifurcating spines to 3 cm in length. The coriaceous, glabrous leaves are arranged oppositely, to 6 cm long, 2 cm wide, ovate to suborbicular with and entire margin and obtuse and mucronate leaf apex. The complete, perfect, actinomorphic flowers are solitary or in cymes in leaf axils. The calyx has 5 unfused, greenish sepals. The corolla has 5 white petals that are fused forming a tube with the elongate lobes overlapping to one side forming a pinwheel shape and slightly pubescent. There are 5 stamens fused to the corolla tube. The ovary is superior and has two locules and many ovules. The fruit is an ovale red berry
Carissa macrocarpa grows in Human Altered environments (yards and gardens).
Found in coastal bush never far from the sea, often on sand dunes.
Carissa macrocarpa is NOT native to the Lucayan Archipelago. It is native to central and southern Africa. It is now widespread as an ornamental throughout the Lucayan Archipelago, the Caribbean region, Central and North America and parts of Asia.
From Humansdorp to Zululand and extending into the southern coastal regions of Mozambique. Widely cultivated in relatively warm areas where frosts are not severe.