Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forssk.) Hartog
  • Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forssk.) Hartog. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000753805. Accessed on: 12 Jul 2020'

Morphology

Fruit ellipsoid, 3.5– 5 cm long, of 2 carpels surrounded by the enlarged inner bract.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pistillate flower with bracts similar to those of staminate, but inner bract fleshy, ovary ellipsoid, 2 mm long, style 4 mm long, stigmas 20 mm long.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fig. 1.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Gregarious marine herb; rhizome mat-forming, robust, to 5 mm thick, internodes 0.5– 3 cm long.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stems erect, unbranched or little-branched, orange-brown, 10– 65 cm long; second stem usually only present as a bud.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Lower leaves often at right angles to the stem, those above ascending, leaf with sheath cream to pink, 1.5– 3 cm long, auriculae obtuse, ligule obtuse, 2– 2.5 mm long and 10 mm wide, scars closed; blade linear, falcate, 7– 15 cm long, 6– 13 mm wide, base narrowed, margin entire except near apex, apex rounded, often ± emarginate, denticulate, the teeth to 1 mm long, sometimes 2– 3-furcate, green, drying brown; nerves 17– 27, connected by oblique cross-veins.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Staminate flower subsessile, surrounded by 4 bracts, the outer and inner smallest, the middle two with sheath and small blade, anthers linear, 6– 7 mm long, yellow tinged with red.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perennial, woody, rhizomatous herbs, glandular-punctate. Roots 6 (occasionally some bifurcating) appearing in a circle from definite points on the fourth node and inter-node of each section of the sympodial rhizome, long, much-branched, forming dense mats, woody, with long scattered root-hairs their thickened bases persisting as short bristles. Rhizome sympodial, each section consisting of 4 internodes, the fourth forming the erect stem, a lower bud continuing the rhizome; internodes angled, smooth, orange brown, with deltoid, amplexicaul, early deciduous bracts. Stems erect, up to 50 cm, unbranched, or rarely with a short side branch, with prominent annular, curved leaf-scars, the lowest internodes up to 15 mm long, the upper brown, occasionally forming a few rootlets below. Leaves about 6-10, in distichous apical tufts, early deciduous, strap-shaped, falcate, 7-15 cm long and 7-15 mm broad, leathery, margin with erect teeth in upper half and on the obtuse to truncate apex, midrib distinct and with about 10 lateral nerves on each side; below the lamina is attached to a light brown, punctate, flat, stipular sheath which is tapered to the base, with folded margins and a narrow rim-like ligule above; axillary scales setaceous, 3-6. Flowers on much abbreviated side branches near the base of the leaf-clusters; the leaves also reduced in size to form bracts. Male flowers consisting of 2 fused stamens with the 2 pairs of apiculate locules facing opposite directions; filaments (or pedicels)presumably lengthening rapidly during anthesis and soon disintegrating, pollen filamentous. Female flowers at first sessile, peduncle accrescent, knobbed, 4-14 mm long, flattened, erect, adjacent to the main stem with 2 fertile pairs of bracts, the inner of a pair about1/3 of the outer in size; the 2 collateral carpels situated on the apex of the peduncle, surrounded by groups of setae (axillary scales), carpels ovoid, compressed lengthwise with a short style 4 mm long divided into 2 subulate stigmatic arms about 25 mm long, ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit (immature?) cylindrical, about 15 mm long, 2 mm broad, apex truncate.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Common and plentiful to dominant on the tropical east African coast, in the infratidal zone, adhering to rocks or coral reefs, rarely uncovered for a short period at very low tides. Found attached to sandstone rock-pools exposed to wave action.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Distributed from the Red Sea eastwards in the Indian Ocean to the tropical Asiatic coasts of the Pacific and the tropical east coast of Australia; southwards along the tropical and subtropical east coast of Africa as far as Zululand.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Cymodoceaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • E All Rights Reserved
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • F See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use