Gomphocarpus physocarpus E.Mey.
  • Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Gomphocarpus physocarpus E.Mey. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000705729. Accessed on: 30 Nov 2020'

General Information

Shrubs 1-2 m tall, few stemmed. Young stems and inflorescences pubescent. Petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, 5-l0 × 0.6-1.5 cm, adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially hairy along midvein, both ends tapering or acute. Peduncle 2-4.5 cm, short hairy. Pedicel 1.5-2.5 cm. Sepals lanceolate. Corolla white, 1.4-2 cm in diam.; lobes ovate, 8-10 mm, reflexed, margin densely bearded. Corona lobes white, inner margin of hoodlike apex with 2, short, recurved or straight cusps, with a large adaxial nectary. Follicles obliquely ovoid to subglobose, 6-8 × 2.5-5 cm, base oblique, apex rounded, beakless; pericarp with soft bristles or spines, minutely tomentose when young, glabrescent when ripe. Seeds ovate, ca. 5 mm; coma shining white, ca. 5 mm. 2n = 22.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    1. Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr. 202 (1838). Lectotipo (designado por Goyder, 1998): Sud África, Drège s.n. (K). Ilustr.: no se encontró.

    Por W.D. Stevens.

    Asclepias physocarpa (E. Mey.) Schltr.

    Plantas herbáceas o arbustivas, 150-250 cm, ramificadas; tallos tomentulosos. Láminas foliares 6.7-9.1 × 1-1.3 cm, lanceoladas a angostamente elípticas, dispersamente tomentulosas a casi glabras, la base atenuada y decurrente, el ápice agudo a acuminado; nervaduras laterales 13-23 pares; coléteres ausentes; pecíolo 0.4-0.5 cm, tomentuloso. Inflorescencias tomentulosas; pedúnculo 2.2-3.2 cm; pedicelos 13-22 mm. Cáliz con 1-2 coléteres por seno, los lobos 2.8-3.8 × 0.7-1.3 mm, lanceolados con ápices atenuados, verdes o algunas veces con márgenes purpúreos, tomentulosos abaxialmente, glabros adaxialmente; corola reflexa, abaxialmente glabra excepto papilada en la base, adaxialmente con un margen de cada lobo tomentoso-ciliado, blanca, el tubo 0.8-1.1 mm, los lobos 5.2-8.1 × 3.7-4.8 mm, elípticos con ápices redondeados; ginostegio con el estípite 1.6-2 mm, los lobos de la corona 3.1-5 × 1.8-2.5 × 0.9-1.5 mm, tan largos como el ápice del estilo, basalmente adnatos al estípite, sólidos hasta cerca del 1/2, más o menos truncados y 4-dentados distalmente, la base más o menos horizontal y córnea, lateralmente comprimida, blanca; apéndices terminales de las anteras ovados; ápice del estilo 1.8-2.6 mm de ancho, levemente convexo. Folículos 1 ó 2, 6.2-8 × 6.2-8 cm, erectos sobre pedicelos deflexos, elipsoides a globosos, redondeados en ambos extremos, con aguijones suaves de c. 1 cm, glabros; semillas 4.7-5 × 2.1-2.5 mm, obovadas, cóncavas en un lado y convexas en el otro, gris-pardo obscuras, densamente reticulado-tuberculadas, el margen 1-2 mm de ancho, crenulado distalmente, la coma c. 2 cm, blanca. Cultivada y naturalizada en áreas abiertas. G (Burch 6009, MO); H (Rivas 195, MO); ES (Villacorta y Rodezno 2290, MO); CR (Grayum 9851, MO); P (Hayden 171, MO). 950-2200 m. (Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Antillas, África, China, islas del Pacifico; nativa de África tropical, ampliamente naturalizada en los trópicos y subtrópicos.)

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
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    Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr. 202. 1838; Asclepias physocarpa (E. Mey.) Schltr.; G. brasiliensis E. Fourn.; A. brasiliensis (E. Fourn.) Schltr.

     Herbáceas o arbustivas, ramificadas, 15–25 dm de alto, erectas, sin corcho, raíces fibrosas, látex blanco, perennes; tallos tomentulosos. Hojas opuestas, láminas lanceoladas a angostamente elípticas, 6.7–9.1 cm de largo y 1–1.3 cm de ancho, ápice agudo a acuminado, base atenuada y decurrente, dispersamente tomentulosas a casi glabras, nervios laterales 13–23 pares, coléteres ausentes; pecíolo 0.4–0.5 cm de largo, tomentuloso, pseudoestípulas ausentes. Inflorescencia extra-axilar, 1 por nudo, umbeliforme, tomentulosa, pedúnculo 2.2–3.2 cm de largo, pedicelo 13–22 mm de largo; cáliz con 1–2 coléteres por seno, lobos lanceolados con ápices atenuados, 2.8–3.8 mm de largo y 0.7–1.3 mm de ancho, tomentulosos abaxialmente, glabros adaxialmente, verdes o algunas veces con márgenes púrpuras; corola rotácea, estivación casi valvada, reflexa, abaxialmente glabra excepto papilada en la base, adaxialmente y con un margen de cada lobo tomentoso-ciliado, blanca, tubo 0.8–1.1 mm de largo, lobos elípticos con ápices redondeados, 5.2–8.1 mm de largo y 3.7–4.8 mm de ancho; androceo y gineceo completamente fusionados y formando un ginostegio estipitado; ginostegio con estípite 1.6–2 mm de largo, corona ginostegial de 5 lobos erectos, basalmente adnados al estípite, sólidos hasta cerca de la mitad, más o menos truncados y 4-dentados distalmente, base más o menos horizontal y córnea, lateralmente comprimida, 3.1–5 mm de largo, 1.8–2.5 mm de ancho y 0.9–1.5 mm de grueso, blanca, igualando al ápice del estilo, apéndices terminales de las anteras ovados, adpresos al ápice del estilo, polinios péndulos, uniformemente fértiles; estilo con ápice levemente convexo, liso, 1.8–2.6 mm de ancho. Folículos 1 ó 2, erectos sobre pedicelos deflexos, elipsoides, redondeados en ambos extremos, 6.2–8 cm de largo y de ancho, con aguijones suaves de ca 1 cm de largo, glabros; semillas obovadas, cóncavas en un lado y convexas en el otro, 4.7–5 mm de largo y 2.1–2.5 mm de ancho, gris-café obscuras, margen 1–2 mm de ancho, crenuladas distalmente, densamente reticulado-tuberculadas, coma ca 2 cm de largo, blanca.

    Cultivada y naturalizada en la zona norcentral; 600–800 m; fl y fr todo el año; Olivas 91; nativa de Sudáfrica pero ampliamente cultivada y algunas veces naturalizada en América tropical. Género con ca 50 especies nativas de Africa tropical.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Diagnostic Description

    This species is very closely allied to G. semilunatus and G. kaessneri, sharing the characteristic growth form of a principal upright stem and many side shoots rather than the more bushy habit of the G. fruticosus group. The G. physocarpus group also has similar preferences for seasonally flooded meadows. The species of this group can generally be distinguished by the form of the corona. The calyx of G. physocarpus is also much shorter than in G. semilunatus.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Morphology

    Bladder-like fruits

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Cream flowers

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    A perennial herb up to 6 ft. high

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Like G. fruticosus but stem simple below, branching above and fruits spherical.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Shrubby perennial herb to 2.5 m tall arising from a tap root; stems generally single, branching above, woody below, upper parts pubescent with spreading white hairs. Leaves generally paired, but occasionally subopposite or crowded into pseudowhorls; petiole 3-12 mm long; lamina 4-9(-12) x 0.5-1.5(-2) cm, narrowly oblong to lanceolate, apex acute, base cuneate, margins smooth, subglabrous or sparsely pubescent with soft white hairs, particularly on the midrib and margins. Inflorescences extra-axillary with 5-12 flowers in a nodding umbel, peduncles 1.5-3.5 cm long, ascending, densely spreading-pubescent to tomentose; bracts deciduous; pedicels (1-)1.5-2(-3) cm long, densely pubescent. Sepals 3-4 x 1 mm, narrowly triangular-attenuate, pubescent. Corolla strongly reflexed, white, glabrous outside, minutely papillate and with long white hairs along the right margin within; lobes 5-8 x 3-4.5 mm, ovate, subacute. Corona lobes attached 1.5-2 mm above base of staminal column, laterally compressed, complicate, 2-3 x 1.5-2(-2.5) mm, as tall as the column, quadrate, with a short erect to slightly recurved tooth c.0.5 mm long on the proximal upper margin, cavity of the lobe lacking any form of tooth, white, frequently tinged with pink or purple. Anther wings 1.8-2 mm long, margins very slightly sinuous. Corpusculum 0.4 x 0.15 mm, ovoid-subcylindrical with lateral translucent flanges, black; translator arms c.0.3 mm, flattened and geniculate; pollinia c.1.6 x 0.4 mm, flattened, oblanceolate in outline. Stigma head flat. Fruiting pedicel contorted; follicle to 4-7 cm in diameter, globose or subglobose, slightly depressed on one side, not beaked but occasionally somewhat angled apically, strongly inflated, pubescent, densely covered with filiform processes to c.1 cm long. Seeds c.4.5 x 2 mm, ovate with one convex and one concave face, verrucose; coma c.3 cm long.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Perennial herb, up to 1.6 m high. Leaves 9-10 times as long as broad, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate. Umbels several, racemosely arranged, 5-10-flowered. Corolla lobes reflexed, glabrous. Corona lobes with erect obliquely subtruncate or shortly falcate teeth at inner apical angles. Follicles subglobose, obtuse or apiculate. Flowers white or cream.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Ecology

    In upland seasonal swamp grassland.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Habitat

    Stony flats, often roadsides.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Common in seasonally wet pastures and flood plains, also occuring in disturbed areas.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Grassland, often near water.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Distribution

    Tropical African weed.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Native to South Africa, Swaziland and southern Mozambique. Almost certainly introduced elsewhere in Africa - it occurs commonly in seasonally dry, disturbed areas of Kenya (K3-6), Tanzania (T2) and Uganda (U2, 3). The species is certainly not native elsewhere in the world.

  • Provided by: [D].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Bahia
    • Paraába
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Goiás

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Apocynaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • D All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).