Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume
  • Bijdr.


This taxon is accepted by Amaranthaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs perennial, 30-50 cm tall. Roots slender. Stem ascending or erect, tinged red, obtusely quadrangular, branched, inflated at nodes. Petiole 1-7 mm, long hairy; leaf blade ovate-rhombic or rhombic-oblong, 1.5-6 × 0.6-3 cm, both surfaces densely hairy and ciliate, base rounded, apex obtuse, narrowed from middle. Racemes terminal, erect and straight, with 2 or 3 hermaphroditic and some unisexual flowers, unisexual flowers gradually decreasing upward, with only 1 perfect flower at apex; rachis densely pubescent; flower clusters shortly stalked. Bracts reflexed after anthesis, 1-2 mm, apex acuminate. Tepals of perfect flowers light green, ovate-oblong, 2-3 mm, abaxially villous, adaxially glabrous, apex acuminate, with a mucro. Stamens 5; filaments 1-2 mm, united part only ca. 1 mm; pseudostaminodes rectangular, apex truncate. Tepals of imperfect flowers and bracts yellow, ca. 1.5 mm, base villous, apex hooked. Utricles globose, ca. 0.5 mm in diam., glabrous. Seeds brown, shiny, ovoid-oblong, very small, smooth. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume var. prostrata, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 549. 1826; Achyranthes prostrata L.

    Hierbas, anuales o perennes, erectas, 20–60 (–80) cm de largo, ascendentes, las partes inferiores a veces postradas, escasamente pubescentes con tricomas delgados. Hojas elípticas, 2.5–8 cm de largo y 1.5–5 cm de ancho, agudas o acuminadas en el ápice, redondeadas o cuneadas en la base, subglabras o escasamente pubescentes con tricomas estrictamente aplicados, pubescencia más densa en el envés; obviamente pecioladas. Inflorescencia espiciforme, 4–16 cm de largo, formada de cimas bilaterales (completas) con ramificación secundaria en ambas axilas de las bractéolas de primer orden, la flor central y las 2 (a veces 1) flores de segundo orden fértiles, flores estériles presentes hasta en el cuarto orden y las bractéolas hasta en el quinto, bráctea 1.2–1.4 mm de largo con el nervio principal cortamente excurrente, bractéolas de primer orden en un pedículo de 0.4–0.8 mm de largo, angostamente ovadas o lanceoladas, 1.1–1.3 mm de largo, escasamente pubescentes, con tricomas simples de 0.3–0.4 mm de largo, delgados e irregularmente encorvados, la cerda excede en un 15–30% la longitud total de la bractéola, bractéolas de segundo orden similares y sésiles, bractéolas de tercer y quinto orden más angostas, con el nervio principal que excede en un 40–60% la longitud total de la bractéola, 8–32 (–56) ganchos visibles por cima; flores fértiles con tépalos lanceolados o angostamente oblongos, ligeramente desiguales, los externos 2.4–2.7 mm de largo, los internos 2.2–2.5 mm de largo, agudos o mucronados en el ápice, densamente pubescentes con tricomas delgados de 0.4–0.5 mm de largo, irregularmente encorvados, 3-nervios; filamentos 1.1–1.2 mm de largo, unidos 25%; pseudoestaminodios rectangulares de 0.2–0.3 mm de largo, bidentados o truncados en el ápice; estilo 0.5–0.7 mm de largo. Utrículo angostamente ovoide, 1.4–1.6 mm de largo; semilla oblonga, 1.2–1.4 mm de largo.

    Ocasional, en pastizales y áreas perturbadas, zonas atlántica y norcentral; 0–950 m; fl y fr nov–mar; Araquistain 3314, Stevens 21368; originaria de los trópicos del Viejo Mundo, introducida desde Centroamérica hasta Perú y Brasil. En Nicaragua es menos abundante que la especie anterior y, según Eliasson, podría deberse a que su introducción es más reciente.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Erect or decumbent geniculate pubescent perennials to 1 m. high, often rooting at the lower nodes. Leaves strigose on both surfaces, entire or undulate, ovate to obovate, apically acute, basally acute to rounded, 2-6 cm. long, 1-4 cm. broad; petioles 2-8 mm. long. Inflorescences of terminal and axillary spikes of glomerules, the mature glomerule usually consisting of a central terminal perfect flower and 2 lateral perfect flowers, each of the lateral flowers subtended on each side by a cluster of about 20 hooks representing 3 modified flowers, the hooks not conspicu- ously longer than the glomerule, the 4'~ t peduncle of the glomerule articulated near the pubescent primary rhachis; spikes 5-30 cm. long, 4-7 mm. broad, with only the distal half continuous. Unmodified flowers perfect; bracts and bracteoles 2 subequal, ovate, mucronate or aristate, 1-1.5 mm. long; sepals 5, subequal, ovate, concave, scariose, pubescent throughout their length, with 1-3 ribs strongly ex- serted dorsally, 2-3 mm. long; stamens 5, 1-2 mm. long, united below to form a tube bearing 5 intercalated 3-dentate pseudostaminodia; ovary at first tympani- form, becoming ovoid; style 1, stigma 1, at anthesis about equaling the stamens. Utricle ovoid, inconspicuously operculate, 1-2 mm. long; seeds cochleate-orbiculate, succineous, smooth 1-1.5 mm. long.

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    Morphology

    Leaves green, sometimes tinged with red

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    Flowers green, often galled

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    More or less erect, much-branched weed, 1–3 ft. high

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    Tepals 2.25–3 mm. long, elliptic-oblong, 3-nerved, subglabrous to more or less densely white-pilose; the outer firmer with the lateral nerves more distinct and joining the shortly excurrent midrib just below the apex, usually more densely white-pilose than the inner; the inner sometimes more or less falcate, slightly shorter.

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    Filaments very slender, c. 1.5 mm. long, the pseudostaminodes rectangular-cuneate with a truncate, dentate or excavate apex.

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    Spines of modified flowers sharply uncinate, numerous, glabrous, reddish, c. 2 mm., fasciculate, in fruit scarcely exceeding the tepals of the fertile flower; 2- or 3-flowered clusters, more or less globose finally deflexed, falling as a unit to form a “burr” c. 5 mm in diam.

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    Style slender, c. 0.6 mm. long, often slightly swollen towards the base.

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    Ovary with a pileiform cap.

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    Seed ovoid, c. 1.5 mm. long, shining, brown, smooth.

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    Capsule ovoid, membranous save for the flat, firm apex, c. 1.5 mm. long.

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    Spikes terminal on the stem and branches, at first dense, soon considerably elongating to as much as 25 cm. but mostly c. 6–15 cm. with maturing lower flowers increasingly distant, 5–7 mm. wide, peduncle up to c. 10 cm. long, axis and peduncle thinly to more or less densely pilose;bracts and bracteoles membranous, lanceolate-ovate, c. 1.5–2 mm. long, mucronate with the shortly excurrent midrib, glabrous or ciliate; flowers in sessile or shortly pedunculate clusters (peduncles to c. 2 mm. long), cymose, of 2–3 hermaphrodite flowers, the two laterals subtended by two modified flowers, or the uppermost hermaphrodite flowers of the spike solitary, similarly subtended by modified flowers, bibracteolate.

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    Leaves 1.5–8 × 1–5 cm., mostly rhomboid to rhomboid-ovate, sometimes rhomboid-elliptic to shortly oval or subcircular, occasionally with the margin outline distinctly excavate below and/or above the middle, shortly acuminate at the apex, acute to rather blunt (more rarely rounded), shortly cuneate to cuneate-attenuate at the base, subglabrous to moderately pilose with strigose hairs on both surfaces, subsessile or distinctly (up to 13 mm. long) petiolate.

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    Annual herb (? sometimes short-lived perennial), stems prostrate and rooting at the lower nodes to erect, 0.2–1.2 m., simple or usually branched up to about the middle, more or less swollen at the nodes, lower branches divaricate, the upper more erect; stem and branches bluntly 4-angled to subterete, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to more or less densely pilose (especially the lower internodes).

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Tepals elliptic-oblong, 2.25–3 mm., 3-nerved, subglabrous to ± densely white-pilose; outer firmer with the lateral nerves more distinct and joining the shortly excurrent midrib just below the apex, usually more densely white-pilose than the inner; inner sometimes ± falcate, slightly shorter.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stems prostrate and rooting at the lower nodes to erect, 0.2–1.2 m., simple or usually branched up to about the middle, ± swollen at the nodes, lower branches divaricate, the upper more erect; stem and branches bluntly 4-angled to subterete, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to ± densely pilose (especially the lower internodes).

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    Annual herb (? sometimes short-lived perennial).

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    Spikes terminal on the stem and branches, at first dense, soon considerably elongating to as much as 35 cm. with maturing lower flowers increasingly distant, 5–7 mm. wide, peduncle up to ± 10 cm., axis and peduncle thinly to ± densely pilose; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate-ovate, ± 1.5–2 mm., mucronate with the shortly excurrent midrib, ciliate; flowers in sessile or shortly pedunculate cymose clusters (peduncles to ± 2 mm.) of 2–3 hermaphrodite flowers, the 2 laterals subtended by 2 modified flowers, or the uppermost hermaphrodite flowers of the spike solitary, similarly subtended by modified flowers, bibracteolate.

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    Leaves mostly rhombic to rhombic-ovate, sometimes rhombic-elliptic to shortly oval or subcircular, 1.5–8 × 1–4.5 cm., occasionally with the margin outline distinctly excavate below and/or above the middle, shortly acuminate at the apex, acute to rather blunt (more rarely rounded), shortly cuneate to cuneate-attenuate at the base, subglabrous to moderately pilose with strigose hairs on both surfaces, subsessile or distinctly (up to 13 mm.) petiolate.

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    Hierba postrada o erecta, 0.30-2 m de altura. Raíz pivotante hasta 15 cm de largo. Tallo estriado, con escamas blanquecinas y tricomas pluricelulares de 1-2 mm de largo; nudos basales con raíces adventicias. Hojas pecioladas; pecíolo 0.2-1.4 cm de largo, tricomas pluricelulares de 1-2 mm de largo, blancos, punto de unión con el tallo con densos tricomas; lámina ampliamente elíptica, 1.3-9.5 x 0.5-4.4 cm, base obtusa, ápice agudo, haz, envés y venación con tricomas pluricelulares de 0.5-1 mm de largo, hojas jóvenes más pubescentes que las adultas. Inflorescencias en racimos, usualmente en cada rama hay 1 inflorescencia en cima axilar y 2 terminales, 3-36 x 0.5-0.8 cm, pedunculadas, verdes; pedúnculo 1-95 mm de largo; cimas con 1 flor central, 2 laterales y 4 grupos de bractéolas uncinadas; pedúnculo 0.7 mm de largo, con tricomas pluricelulares blancos de 1-2 mm de largo, las cimas maduras se tornan péndulas; bráctea 1, triangular, membranácea, menor que la mitad del perianto, persistente, glabra o con pocos filamentos de 0.1 mm de largo, nervio medio terminando en una arista de 0.2 mm de largo; bractéolas 2, subtendiendo la cima, similares en forma y consistencia a la bráctea, menores que la mitad del perianto. Flores perfectas; 2 laterales similares en forma y tamaño a la flor central, 6-13 bractéolas uncinadas a cada lado, hasta 1 mm de largo, con una membrana translúcida hacia la base, márgenes con tricomas de 0.1 mm de largo dispersos, y un nervio medio que termina en un gancho o anzuelo. Flor central 2-2.5 x 1 mm. Sépalos 5, triangulares, cóncavos, agudos, 2-2.5 x 0.6, verdes claro, coriáceos a semitranslúcidos, trinerviados, usualmente con pocos tricomas en la mitad inferior. Estambres 5; filamentos hasta 1 mm de largo, connatos en la base hasta 0.2 mm de su longitud; anteras 0.2 mm de largo; estaminodios rectangulares, 0.5 mm de largo. Ovario 0.7 mm de largo; estilo 0.5 mm de largo; estigma penicilado, 0.1 mm de largo. Fruto un pixidio, 0.7 x 0.6 mm, glabro. Semilla 1, elipsoide, menos de 1.5 mm de largo, lisa, lustrosa, parda.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Colombia
    • Filaments very slender, ± 1.5 mm., the pseudostaminodes rectangular-cuneate with a truncate dentate or excavate apex.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Spines of modified flowers sharply uncinate, numerous, glabrous, reddish, ± 2 mm., fasciculate, in fruit scarcely exceeding the tepals of the fertile flower; 2–3-flowered clusters ± globose, finally deflexed, falling as a unit to form a burr ± 5 cm. in diameter.

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      Seed ovoid, smooth, ± 1.5 mm., shining, brown.

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      Capsule ovoid, membranous save for the flat firm apex, ± 1.5 mm.

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      Style slender, ± 0.6 mm., often slightly swollen towards the base.

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      Ovary with a pileiform cap.

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      Ecology

      In waste places and forest margins.

    • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • F The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • I Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).