Corchorus trilocularis L.
  • Mant. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Corchorus trilocularis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000620201. Accessed on: 29 Nov 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual or perennial, many branched, pilose. Stipule subulate; petiole 0.5-1 cm, pilose; leaf blade elliptic or ovate-oblong, 1.5-3 × 1-2 cm, hairy only on veins abaxially, glabrous adaxially, lateral basal veins 1/3 as long as leaf blade, base broadly rounded, margin crenate, apex obtuse. Cymes opposite to leaves, 1-3-flowered; peduncle very short. Sepals ca. 5 mm. Petals nearly spatulate, 5-6 mm. Stamens 15-20; filaments 5-6 mm. Ovary 3-loculed. Capsule 1-3-fascicled, long cylindrical, 5-7 × ca. 0.3 cm, apex beaked. Seeds separated by septum. Fl. Aug, fr. Sep.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Diagnostic Description

    This species is very variable in leaf-shape, size, pubescence and, particularly if it is grazed or trampled, becomes semiprostrate and can be confused with C. asplenifolius. It is, however, always an annual, whilst C. asplenifolius is always a perennial.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Morphology

    Flowers yellow.

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    Herbaceous or half-woody annual, 1–2 ft. high

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    Fig. 18/12 (fruit, p. 103), 20 (p. 112).

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    Seeds oblong-ovoid, blackish and pruinose, up to 1 mm in diameter, smooth.

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    Petals 4–5, 5–7 mm long, 2–2.5 mm wide, obovate tapering to a short ciliate claw; stamens ∞; ovary cylindric, 3 mm long, shortly pubescent.

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    Sepals 4–5, 5.5–6.3 mm long, 1 mm wide, dorsal surface pubescent especially at base.

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    Capsule cylindric, torulose, 2.5–6.5 cm long, 1–2.5 mm wide, held erect, straight or slightly curved, splitting into 3, rarely 4, valves, glabrous when mature, covered with scattered stellate hairs especially when young.

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    Annual herb to 1 m, rarely to 1.5 m; stems often purplish, covered with spreading setulose pubescence when young, on older stems pubescence confined to one side of stem.

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    Inflorescence of 1–3-flowered cymes; bracts up to 3.3 mm long, ciliate; peduncles ± 1 mm long, lengthening in fruit; pedicels ± 1 mm long.

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    Leaves narrowly elliptic to elliptic, ovate or lanceolate, 4–9(–12.5) cm long, 0.6–2.4 cm wide, margins coarsely serrate, with a pair of basal setae 0.6–10 mm long, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, acute to subacute, with pubescence on midrib, pubescence beneath especially prominent on midrib and veins; petioles 0.7–1.9 cm long, covered with setaceous hairs; stipules up to 1 cm long, pubescent.

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    Leaf-lamina 2–12 × 0·5–3·5 cm., lanceolate to oblong or narrowly oblong, apex acute or subacute, margin crenate-serrate, usually with a pair of setaceous basal appendages, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, glabrous or setulose-pilose on both surfaces especially on the nerves; petiole up to 2–5 cm. long when low down on the stems but usually rather shorter, with a spreading setulose pubescence especially on the upper side; stipules c. 1 cm. long, setaceous, setulose-pubescent.

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    Annual herb up to c. 1 m. tall, erect and branching or sometimes with decumbent branches if the main stem is cut down or browsed; branchlets often purplish and when young with a spreading setulose pubescence not confined to one side of the stem.

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    Sepals 6–10 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, usually caudate at the apex, often somewhat keeled, setulose-pubescent particularly on the keel.

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    Inflorescences of 1–3-flowered cymes borne opposite the upper leaves; peduncles c. 1 mm. long but lengthening in fruit, setose-pubescent; pedicels similar, c. 1 mm. long.

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    Petals yellow, the same length as the sepals, oblanceolate, with a short ciliate claw at the base.

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    Androgynophore c. 0·5 mm. long, extended above into a slightly undulate annulus.

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    Stamens 30–40.

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    Ovary trigonously subcylindric, very shortly pubescent, 3 (4)-locular; style 1–1·5 mm. long, glabrous.

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    Capsule many-seeded, 2·5–7 cm. long, held erect, straight or slightly curved, 3–1-angled, 3–valved; valves scabrous and sometimes somewhat torulose outside, with a series of hollows inside fitting the seeds.

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    Seeds dark brown, 1–1·3 × 0·7–1 mm., oblong-ovoid.

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    Erect or sometimes decumbent annual herb, 1 m high. Capsules up to 70 mm long, held erect, valves minutely scabrous. Peduncles up to 2 mm long. Flowers yellow.

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    Herbe'annuelle ou suffrutescente, dressée ou prostrée, ramifiée, de 0,30-0,80 m de haut; tiges pubescentes à glabrescentes.'Feuilles'à stipules lancéolées-filiformes, de 7-12 mm de long, pubescentes; pétiole de 0,3-2 cm de long, pubescent; limbe oblong-lancéolé, lancéolé à elliptique, arrondi et muni de 2 appendices filiformes à la base, aigu à acuminé au sommet, de 2-12 cm de long et 0,5-3,5 cm de large, denté-serré, éparsement pubescent à ± glabrescent en dessus, pubescent en dessous.'Fascicules'oppositifoliés, 2-3-flores.'Fleurs'jaunes; pédicelle de 1-2 mm de long, pubescent; bouton obovoïde, courtement apiculé, de ± 4 mm de long et 2 mm de large; sépales lancéolés, acuminés, de ± 5 mm de long et 1,5-2,2 mm de large, éparsement pubescents sur le dos; pétales subonguiculés, obovales-oblancéolés, de ± 4 mm de long et 2 mm de large; disque annulaire, de ± 0,4 mm de long; étamines ∞; ovaire cylindrique, 3-6-côtelé, 3-loculaire, tomentelleux à poils en fascicules ± stipités; style plus court que l'ovaire, glabre; ovules ∞.'Capsules'étroitement cylindriques, de 2,5-7 cm de long et 0,2-0,3 cm de large, à bec entier, munies à l'état jeune de poils en fascicules ± stipités à stipe ± persistant et accrochant; valves 3, à cloisons transversales incomplètes.'Graines ∞, subrectangulaires, de ± 0,8 mm de long et 0,3 mm de large.

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    Annual herb up to about 1 m tall, erect and branching or sometimes with decumbent branches if the main stem is cut down or browsed; branchlets often purplish and in the young parts with a spreading, setulose pubescence not confined to one side of the stem. Leaf-blade 20-120 x 5-35 mm, lanceolate, oblong or narrowly oblong, apex acute or subacute, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, margin crenate-serrate, usually with a pair of setaceous basal lobes, glabrous or setulose-pilose on both sides especially on the nerves; petiole up to 25 mm long low down on the stems but usually rather shorter, with a spreading, setulose pubescence especially on the upper side; stipules about 10 mm long, setaceous, setulose-pubescent. Inflorescence of 1-3-flowered cymes borne opposite the upper leaves; peduncles about 1 mm long but lengthening in fruit, setose-pubescent; pedicles similar, about 1 mm long. Sepals 6-10 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, caudate at the apex as a rule, often somewhat keeled, setulose-pubescent particularly on the keel. Petals yellow, oblanceolate, as long as the sepals, with a short basal claw with ciliate margin. Androgynophore about 0.5 mm long, extended above into a slightly undulate annulus. Stamens filamentous, 30-40. Ovary trigonously subcylindric, very shortly pubescent, 3- or occasionally 4-locular; style 1-1.5 mm long, glabrous. Capsule many-seeded, 25-70 mm long, erect, straight or slightly curved, 3-4-angled, 3-4-valved; valves scabrous and sometimes somewhat torulose outside, with a series of hollows inside fitting the seeds; seeds dark brown, 1-1.3 x 0.7-1 mm, oblong-ovoid.

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    Habitat

    Savanna.

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    Savanes boisées, bords de rivières, rudéral.

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    A widespread introduced weed.

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    Distribution

    Native to Europe and Asia.

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    Afrique tropicale et subtropicale; Inde; Amérique tropicale; Australie

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    Natal, the eastern Cape, the Transvaal, South West Africa/Namibia, Swaziland and also throughout tropical Africa and in Asia and the Middle East.

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      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).