Corchorus tridens L.
  • Mant. Pl.
  • Horn-fruited jute


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Corchorus tridens L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000620198. Accessed on: 07 Mar 2021'

General Information

Plants herbs, annual. Stems erect to ascending, 3–6 dm, mostly glabrous. Leaves: petiole 5–15(–25) mm; blade oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-obovate, linear-lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, 1.5–9(–12) cm, base rounded, margins crenate to serrate, each of proximal pair of teeth usually prolonged into caudate-setaceous point 3–5 mm, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces glabrous or sparsely hirsute on veins. Inflorescences solitary flowers or fasciculate or cymose, 2 or 3(or 4)-flowered. Pedicels 0–1 mm. Flowers: sepals linear-oblong to narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, 3–5 mm, not awned, glabrous; petals 3–5 mm; stamens 10–15(–20). Capsules cylindric, terete, not wing-angled, 3-valved, each valve terminated by bifurcate awn 1.5–2 mm, 20–40 × 1.5–2 mm, glabrous. 2n = 14.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 27
    • ]. 

    An erect or suberect, 30-60 cm tall, annual herb. Stem and branches glabrous. Leaves 3-4-costate, oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate or somewhat elliptic-obovate, 1.5-9 cm long, 0.6-2.2 cm broad, glabrous except the sparsely hairy veins, crenate-serrate, basal serratures prolonged into filiform spreading appendages or not, acute; petiole 5-12 mm long, hairy; stipules setaceous, 2-3 mm long. Cyme 1-3(-4)-flowered, antiphyllous, short peduncled. Flowers yellow, c. 1 cm across, subsessile; bracts subulate, 3-4 mm long. Sepals linear-oblong, 4-5 mm long, c. 2 mm broad, apiculate. Petals oblong, 3-4 mm long, c. 2 mm broad, obtuse. Stamens 10-15, filaments 4-5 mm long. Carpels 3; ovary cylindric, sulcate, 3-loculed, hairy; style small, stigma sparsely papillate. Capsules 1-3 together, erect, cylindrical, 1.5-4 cm long, c. 2 mm in diameter, not ribbed, glabrous, terminated by 3 spreading bifid tips, 3-loculed, locules aseptate. Seeds angular, obliquely truncate at both ends, black.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 28
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    A weed of cultivation

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Fig. 18/13 (fruit, p.103).

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Seeds angular, oblong, dull dark brown, up to 0.5 mm in diameter, finely reticulate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Capsule a slender cylinder, 2–4 cm long, 1–1.5 mm wide, held erect, straight or slightly curved, splitting into 3 valves, glabrous to sparsely setulose, ending in 3 spreading horns, these usually bifid.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–5, 3.5–4.8 mm long, 0.5–1.5 mm wide, obovate, tapering to a short ciliate claw; stamens ± 10; ovary cylindric, 2–3 mm long, papillose.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–5, 3.5–4.3 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm wide, glabrous or with odd hairs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences of 1–4-flowered glabrous fascicles; bracts up to 3 mm long, glabrous; peduncles ± 1 mm long; pedicels ± 1 mm long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Leaves narrowly ovate, ovate or narrowly oblong, 3–11.5 cm long, 0.6–1(–3) cm wide, margins coarsely serrate, usually with a pair of basal setae 0.6–0.9 mm long, rounded at the base, acute to subacute, glabrous above, pubescent on midrib beneath and occasionally on blade; petioles 0.6–1.4 cm long, pilose especially on upper surface; stipules up to 5 mm, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, suberect or decumbent, up to 1 m tall; stems glabrous to sparsely pilose.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 25
    • ]. 

    Sepals c. 5 mm. long, linear, slightly broader in the upper half, bluntly acuminate, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Ovary trigonously cylindric, papillose, 3-locular; style c. 2 mm. long, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Stamens 8–10.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Seeds c. 1·4 × 0·8 mm., numerous, dark brown, cylindric or somewhat quadrangular-cylindric.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Capsule up to c. 4 cm. long, held more or less erect, straight or slightly curved, usually somewhat ribbed, sparsely and minutely setulose-scabrid, terminated by 3 spreading horns c. 1 mm. long; valves only shallowly pitted inside to contain the seeds.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Androgynophore almost obsolete, but annulus visible and clasping the base of the ovary.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Petals yellow, the same length as the sepals, very narrowly oblanceolate, with a basal minutely ciliolate claw c. 0·3 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Annual herb up to c. 0·6 m. tall, usually erect but with the older branches rather spreading; branchlets at first rather compressed or angular, glabrous or sparsely pilose.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Leaf-lamina 2·5–11 × 0·6–4·5 cm., oblong to lanceolate, acute at the apex, margin serrate or serrate-crenate, rounded at the base, glabrous or sparsely setulose-pubescent on the nerves; petiole up to 2 cm. long, pilose on the upper side; stipules up to 10 mm. long, setaceous, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences of 1–3-flowered leaf-opposed cymes; peduncles up to 1 mm. long, glabrous; pedicels similar, up to 1 mm. long; bracts 1–2 mm. long, setaceous, glabrous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 26
    • ]. 

    Erect or spreading annual herb, 0.6 m high. Capsule with 3 spreading horns at apex. Flowers yellow.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 29
    • ]. 

    Herbe'annuelle, parfois suffrutescente, de 0,20-1 m de haut, ± ramifiée, glabre.'Feuilles'à stipules linéaires-filiformes, de 4-9 mm de long, persistantes; pétiole de 0,4-4 cm de long, pubescent aux bords; limbe lancéolé, oblancéolé à elliptique, tronqué et muni de 2 appendices filiformes à la base, acuminé à arrondi au sommet, de 2-11 cm de long et 0,5-3,5 cm de large, densément denté-serré, glabre; nervures basales 4.'Fascicules'oppositifoliés, 2-4-flores.'Fleurs'jaunes, glabres; pédicelle de ± 0,5 mm de long, glabre; bouton oblong-obovoïde, de ± 3 mm de long, courtement apiculé; sépales étroitement elliptiques à lancéolés, courtement apiculés, de ± 4 mm de long et ± 0,6 mm de large, glabres, caducs; pétales oblancéolés, courtement onguiculés, de ± 4 mm de long et 1,5 mm de large; disque annulaire, très court; étamines ∞; ovaire cylindrique, 3-6-côtelé, éparsement pubérulent à poils simples à l'extérieur, 3-loculaire; style plus court que l'ovaire, glabre; ovules co.'Capsules'cylindriques, de 2-4 cm de long et 0,12-0,2 cm de large, terminées par un bec 3-fide; valves 3, sans cloisons.'Graines ∞ cylindriques à rectangulaires, de 1,5 mm de long et 0,7 mm de large.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Annual herb about 0.6 m tall, usually erect but with its older branches rather spreading, branchlets at first rather compressed or angular, glabrous or sparsely pilose. Leaf-blade 25-110 x 6-45 mm, oblong to lanceolate, acute at the apex, rounded at the base, margin serrate or serrate-crenate, glabrous or sparsely setulose-pubescent on the nerves; petiole up to 20 mm long, pilose on the upper side; stipules up to 10 mm long, setaceous, glabrous. Inflorescence of 1-3-flowered leaf-opposed cymes; peduncles up to 1 mm long, glabrous; pedicels similar, up to 1 mm long; bracts 1-2 mm long, setaceous, glabrous. Sepals about 5 mm long, linear to slightly widened in the upper half, bluntly acuminate, glabrous. Petals yellow, as long as the sepals, very narrowly oblanceolate, with a minute basal claw about 0.3 mm long minutely ciliolate on the margin. Androgynophore almost obsolete but annulus visible and clasping the base of the ovary. Stamens 8-10, filamentous. Ovary trigonously cylindric, papillose, 3-locular; style about 2 mm long, glabrous. Capsule up to about 40 mm long, held more or less erect, straight or slightly curved, usually somewhat ribbed, sparsely and minutely setulose-scabrid, terminated by three spreading horns about 1 mm long; valves inside only shallowly pitted to receive the seeds; seeds numerous, dark brown, about 1.4 x 0.8 mm, cylindric or somewhat quadrangular-cylindric.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 32
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Disturbed sandy areas.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 29
    • ]. 

    Savanes, rudéral.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Widesprad as an annual weed in the tropics and sub-tropics of the Old World.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 32
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 29
    • ]. 

    Recorded in our area from Natal, Swaziland, Transvaal and South West Africa/Namibia.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 32
    • ]. 

    Uses

    Herbe comestible.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 31
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Horn-fruited jute

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • F All Rights Reserved
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).