Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole up to 2·5 cm. long; terminal leaflet up to 2·6 × 1·4 cm., narrowly obovate or obovate, apex acute (often truncate to the north of our area), base gradually cuneate; lateral leaflets about half the size of the terminal ones, broadly obovate or ovate, apex acute, base broadly cuneate; margin of all leaflets coarsely crenate in the upper half.
Shrub or small bushy tree, spiny, quite glabrous except for a few brown hairs at the apex and base of the petioles; bark smooth, peeling in yellowish strips.
Calyx 1·5 mm. long, lobed to 1/3-way or less.
Flowers appearing before the leaves in axillary abbreviated clusters, often borne on the spines; pedicels c. 1 mm. long.
Fruits c. 1·3 × 0·8 cm., ellipsoid to m globose, slightly apiculate at the apex; pseudaril apparently absent; endocarp c. 0·75 × 0·5 cm., ellipsoid, lumpy-rugose, with one face very deeply convex and the other shallowly so.
Disk-lobes 4, ± bifid at the apex.
Filaments 5 and 3, anthers 1.1 and 0.7 mm. long.
Fruit-stalk 0.5–2 mm. long; drupe flattened ovoid or ellipsoid, usually distinctly beaked, sometimes merely acute, 10–13 mm. long (including a 0–3 mm. beak) × 7 × (3.5 + 4) mm.; pseudaril almost entirely surrounding and closely clinging to the rugose stone, sometimes shortly 4-lobed at the tip; stone ovoid, pointed ± 8 × 5 × (2.5 + 3) mm. with small but well-defined apical pits; sterile cell convex, thickest below the middle, resembling the fertile cell but rather smaller, the stone thus appears 4-gonous when viewed from above.
Leaves all 3-foliolate, often glabrous but sometimes with rather long flexuous golden hairs at the bases of the leaflets and the petiole which is usually about as long as the central leaflet but sometimes, especially on short-shoots, much longer and sometimes on long-shoots much shorter; terminal leaflet obovate or rhombic, rounded or pointed, cuneate-attenuate at the base, 7–35 mm. long, 8–22 mm. wide, with 3–6 deep crenations usually above the middle on each side; lateral leaflets usually similar in shape but 1/3–2/3 as long, sometimes almost orbicular with a wide basal angle and with teeth nearer the base.
Flowers greenish yellow, precocious, glabrous, the ♂ 20–40 together in dense clusters of very short cymes, the ♀ 2–6 together; pedicels ± 1 mm. long; receptacle cupular ± 1.2 mm. deep and 1.5 mm. wide.
Calyx ± 2.5 mm. long including triangular lobes ± 1 mm. long.
Petals linear, reflexed near the pointed tip, 4–5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide.
Almost glabrous shrub or small tree 2–6 m. tall; trunk cylindrical; outer bark peeling in dull yellow or grey flakes from the green under-bark; slash pale or reddish, smooth; exudate usually sparse, ± aromatic, producing a hard yellowish gum-resin; both long- and short-shoots usually spine-tipped, young twigs glabrous.
Shrub or small tree, up to 6 m high. Branchlets spine-tipped, glabrous. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets glabrous, margins coarsely crenate-serrate. Fruit ellipsoid, distinctly apiculate. Pseudo-aril membranous and without arms, putamen rugose. Flowers reddish yellow.
Shrub or small tree 2-6 m tall; bark peeling in black discs or flaking in small yellowish papery pieces; young branchlets glabrous, spine-tipped. Leaves trifoliolate, glabrous, green; petiole 5-30 mm long; leaflets elliptic to broad elliptic; petiolules up to 2 mm long; margins coarsely crenate-serrate especially in the upper half of leaflets, apex acute, base cuneate, terminal leaflet up to 50 x 35 mm, lateral leaflets up to 25 x 22 mm. Inflorescence: flowers borne in clusters. Flowers bisexual only, hypogynous. Pedicel 1-2 mm long and with a few glandular hairs. Disc 4-lobed, not adnate to perianth. Stamens 8. Fruit ellipsoid and distinctly apiculate, ±17 x 10 x 10 mm, glabrous; putamen very rugose, pseudo-aril red, membranous, covering almost the whole putamen.