Fruit c. 9 × 7 mm., broadly ellipsoid, somewhat asymmetric with abruptly pointed apex, glabrous; pseudaril with 3 (4) arms; endocarp c. 7 × 5 mm., smooth.
Stamen-filaments slender, subterete.
Low spreading much-branched shrub 1–2 m. tall or a small tree up to c. 8 m. tall, spiny, bark grey and papery; young branches glabrous.
Calyx c. 2 mm. long, lobed to halfway, glabrous or ± densely glandular.
Flowers appearing before the leaves in subsessile clusters on short side-shoots or on the spines.
Leaves 1-foliolate or very rarely (? only at the northern extremity of the range in N. Rhodesia) with very much smaller lateral leaflets; petiole up to 2 mm. long, glabrous or with a few minute glands and 4: pilose; leaflet-lamina up to 7·5 × 3·2 cm. (but usually smaller), narrowly obovate to obovate or more rarely elliptic, apex acute or sometimes obtuse, margins crenate-serrate, base cuneate, glabrous on both surfaces or with a few scattered glands especially towards the base of the midrib, rarely shortly pubescent when very young.
Polygamous or dioecious many-stemmed shrub or small tree, up to 3 m high. Bark yellow to green, flaking In yellowish papery pieces to expose green underlayer. Branchlets spine-tipped. Leaves simple or 3-foliolate; lamina elliptic, narrowly obovate or obovate, margin finely crenate-serrate. Flowers yellowish green to red.
Dioecious or polygamous many-stemmed shrub, 0.5-3.0 m tall, occasionally a small tree with single trunk up to 3 m tall; bark greyish green or yellowish green, flaking in small yellowish papery pieces; young branchlets glabrous, spine-tipped. Leaves usually simple but on long shoots often trifoliolate with smaller lateral leaflets, with long glandular hairs at base but otherwise glabrous, green, subsessile, margin finely crenate-serrate, occasionally almost entire, apex acute or obtuse, base cuneate, lamina of simple leaves/terminal leaflet elliptic, narrowly obovate or obovate, (16-)25(-55) x (8-)16(-32) mm, lateral leaflets narrowly elliptic or elliptic, (4-)8(-12) x (2-)3(-10) mm. Inflorescence: reduced cymes of flowers borne in clusters. Flowers unisexual or bisexual, hypogynous. Pedicel 0.5-1.0 mm long, pedicel and calyx without glandular hairs (glabrous). Disc 4-lobed, folded to form 4 large lobes towards the outside, inside of lobes deeply grooved, not adnate to perianth. Stamens 8. Fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, ±11 x 8 x 7 mm, glabrous; putamen rugose, with a hump on less convex face; pseudo-aril red, with 4 arms of equal length reaching almost to apex of putamen.