Flowers appearing with the leaves or before the leaves, in clusters in short side-shoots or (male) in short dichasial cymes; pedicels c. 2 mm. long, glabrous.
Calyx 2 mm. long, campanulate, lobed to half-way.
Tree up to 9 m. tall; bark smooth, green, peeling; branches cinereous-pubescent when young, often spiny.
Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole up to 4·5 cm. long, sparsely pilose; leaflets up to 6 × 3·5 cm., terminal usually very broadly obovate, the laterals smaller and broadly elliptic to rotund, apex shortly apiculate or rounded, margins finely crenate-serrate but entire towards the base, base cuneate, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs.
Fruit c. 1·3 × 1·2 cm., subglobose, minutely apiculate, glabrous; pseudaril with 4 rather thick and slightly winged arms; endocarp c. 1 × 0·8 cm., smooth, both faces deeply convex.
Polygamous or dioecious, many-stemmed shrub or small tree, up to 8 m high. Branchlets spine-tipped, with a few scattered short hairs. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflet margins entire or distal half finely crenate-serrate. Flowers yellowish green.
Polygamous or dioecious many-stemmed shrub or small tree up to 8 m tall; bark grey to green, smooth or flaking in small yellowish papery pieces; young branchlets with a few short hairs, spine-tipped. Leaves trifoliolate, with a few short hairs, green; petiole 5-45 mm long; leaflets elliptic or ovate to broadly ovate; petiolules usually less than 1 mm long; margins entire or upper half finely crenate-serrate, apex acute, base cuneate, terminal leaflet up to 45 x 30 mm, lateral leaflets up to 30 x 22 mm. Inflorescence: axillary dichasial cymes or flowers borne in clusters. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, hypogynous. Pedicel 2-5 mm long, pedicel and calyx often with a few short hairs. Disc 4-lobed, not adnate to perianth. Stamens 8. Fruit subglobose, ±15 x 14 x 14 mm, glabrous; putamen smooth; pseudo-aril red, with 4 arms, 2 commissural arms reaching almost to apex of putamen, 2 facial arms shorter.