Carica papaya L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • mamão


This taxon is accepted by Caricaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Description

Trees or shrubs 8-10 m tall. Stem simple, with stipulate scars helically arranged. Petiole hollow, 60-100 cm; leaf blade ca. 60 cm, usually 5-9 palmatifid; lobes pinnatifid. Male inflorescence pendulous, to 1 m. Male flowers: pedicel absent; corolla tube creamy yellow, 1.6-2.5 cm, lobes lanceolate, ca. 1.8 × 0.45 cm; stamens 5 longer and 5 shorter, shorter ones almost without filaments; filaments white, white tomentose. Female flowers usually solitary or aggregated in corymbose cymes; pedicel short or nearly absent; calyx lobes ca. 1 cm; corolla lobes creamy yellow, oblong or lanceolate, 5-6.2 × 1.2-2 cm; ovary ovoid; stigmas partite, nearly fimbriate. Bisexual flowers: corolla tube 1.9-2.5 cm, lobes oblong, ca. 2.8 × 0.9 cm; stamens 5 or 10 in 1 or 2 whorls; ovary smaller than in female flowers. Fruit orange-yellow or yellow at maturity, cylindric, ovoid-cylindric, or subglobose, 10-30 cm; sarcocarp soft with a mild, pleasant flavor. Seeds numerous, black at maturity, ovoid. 2n = 18.

Plants ca. 6 m. Stems to ca. 20 cm diam., bark green to gray or brown, leaf scars prominent, smooth. Leaves drooping proximally, erect or spreading distally; petiole 35-70 cm, hollow; blade round in general contour, 20-60 cm diam., shallowly to deeply palmately 5-9-lobed, lobes lanceolate to ovate, margins entire or pinnately divided into lanceolate to ovate lobes. Inflorescences 15-60 cm; bracts ± rhombic. Staminate flowers sessile; calyx green, short-tubular, ca. 1.5 mm, teeth triangular to linear; corolla white, 2-3.5 cm, lobes narrowly oblong, ca. 1.3 cm; stamens yellow. Pistillate flowers subsessile; calyx yellow, short-tubular, 5-10 mm, teeth triangular to linear; petals lanceolate-oblong, white to pale yellow, 3-5 cm; ovary ellipsoidal to rounded, 2-3 cm . Berries hanging from trunk near summit, green to orange, ellipsoidal to oblong, rounded distally, 8-45 cm. Seeds blackish. 2n = 18.

1. Carica papaya L., Sp. Pl. 1036 (1753). Lectotipo (designado por Moreno, 1980): Herb. Linn. 1190.1 (imagen en Internet ex LINN!). Ilustr.: Badillo, Monogr. Caric. 64, t. 12 (1971). N.v.: Papaya.

Por F.A. Carvalho.

Carica citriformis Jacq., C. cubensis Solms, C. jamaicensis Urb., C. jimenezii (Bertoni) Bertoni, C. mamaya Vell., C. papaya L. var. jimenezii Bertoni, C. papaya forma portoricensis Solms, C. peltata Hook. et Arn., C. pinnatifida Heilborn, C. portoricensis (Solms) Urb., Papaya carica Gaertn., P. cimarrona Sint. ex Kuntze, P. peltata (Hook. et Arn.) Kuntze, P. vulgaris DC., Vasconcellea peltata (Hook. et Arn.) A. DC.

Árboles hasta 10 m; tallos fistulosos, carnosos, las cicatrices foliares generalmente en el ápice. Hojas en una densa corona terminal, orbiculares, 19-40(-70) cm, ligera a profundamente lobadas, con (5)7-11 lobos, los márgenes enteros, el ápice agudo, cortamente acuminado o mucronato; pecíolo 30-70(-100) cm, fistuloso, glabro o verrugoso. Inflorescencias masculinas en una panícula péndula, largamente pedunculada; pedúnculo 10-20 cm, los ejes glabros o escasamente pelosos. Flores estaminadas blancas o amarillas, algunas veces verdosas; cáliz 1-1.5 mm; tubo de la corola casi del mismo tamaño que los lobos de la corola; estambres ínferos pelosos, sésiles o cortamente pedicelados, los filamentos hasta 0.7 mm; conectivo no alargado; estambres súperos densamente pelosos, los filamentos 1.5-2.5 mm, las anteras 1.5-3 mm, el conectivo no alargado; pistilodio 4-10 mm. Inflorescencias femeninas con 1-3 flores; pedúnculo 0.3-2 cm. Flores pistiladas blancas a amarillas; pedicelos 2-5 mm; cáliz 2-4 mm; corola glabra, los pétalos 30-40 mm; estigmas 9-11 mm, ramificados. Bayas 7-60 cm, ovoides, globosas, piriformes o angostamente elipsoidales, anaranjadas o amarillas; semillas 5-7 × 3-4 mm, elipsoidales, la testa lisa o con pequeñas estrías longitudinales. T (Calónico 2117, MEXU); Ch (Croat 43818

Carica papaya L., Sp. Pl. 1036. 1753; C. peltata Hook. & Arn.

Arbustos o árboles de tallos fistulosos, generalmente no ramificados; plantas dioicas o polígamas. Hojas simples, agrupadas hacia los extremos de las ramas, persistentes, hasta 70 cm de diámetro, palmatilobas, 7–11 (–13)-nervias, los lobos enteros o pinnatífidos y de ápices agudos. Flores con los lóbulos del cáliz alternos con los de la corola; inflorescencias masculinas en las axilas de las hojas, en general largamente pedunculadas, cimoso-paniculadas, péndulas, multifloras, hasta 1 m de largo; flores masculinas con filamentos densamente pilosos y anteras pilosas, las superiores sin prolongación apical, las inferiores con el conectivo no prolongado o apenas así; inflorescencias femeninas cortas, paucifloras; flores femeninas con estigmas aplanados frecuentemente divididos a modo de cornamenta de venado, ovario 1-locular; además de las formas masculinas y femeninas descritas, en las plantas cultivadas a veces se presentan también otras formas sexuales intermedias con estambres o carpelos no bien desarrollados o flores hermafroditas plenamente desarrolladas. Los frutos en los especímenes silvestres son por lo general pequeños y frecuentemente esféricos, en tanto que varían mucho en la forma sexual de la cual derivan alcanzando hasta varios decímetros de longitud.

Abundante, en bordes de bosques o en su mismo interior, en claros selváticos y sitios cercanos al mar, en todas las zonas del país; 0–1400 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Henrich 124, Stevens 3375; silvestre o asilvestrada en América tropical, de donde es originaria; naturalizada en los trópicos del Viejo Mundo. "Papaya". Genus monotypic.

Dioecious or occasionally polygamous or monoecious trees 2-8 m. tall with characteristic stout succulent and unbranched trunks, usually glabrous in all parts or essentially so. Leaves in a dense terminal crown, long-petiolate; blade simple but palmately divided into usually 7 more or less irregularly and broadly pinnatifid segments, variable in size but frequently up to 4-5 dm. in diameter; petiole usually up to 5-7 dm. long. Staminate inflorescences repeatedly compound, many-flowered, somewhat shorter than the subtending petioles, spreading or pendulous, the pistillate far shorter than the subtending petioles, usually only 1- to 3-flowered. Staminate flowers: calyx lobes very broadly deltoid, obtuse, about 1 mm. long; corolla salver- form white or yellow, the tube about 1.5-2.0 cm. long, about 2 mm. in diameter, the lobes oblong, 1.0-1.5 cm. long, slightly spreading; stamens inserted at the orifice of the corolla tube, exserted, the antepetalous anthers about 2.5 mm. long, nearly sessile and descending basally into the corolla tube, the antesepalous anthers erect, wholly exserted, about 2 mm. long, with apically 2-lobed filaments of nearly equal length; pistillode acicular, about 1 cm. long. Pistillate flowers far larger than the staminate, irregularly campanulate, white or pale cream: calyx lobes broadly deltoid, about 1 mm. long; corolla essentially polypetalous or very weakly united, the segments about 5-7 cm. long, 1.5-2.0 cm. broad, broadly acute, irregu- larly reflexed toward the tips; staminodia lacking, rarely minute and hypogynous; ovary ovoid-ellipsoid, usually about 3 cm. long (including the indefinitely attenuate style) and 2 cm. broad, the stigma essentially sessile, of 5 thick segments about 1 cm. long fimbriately di- or trichotomous toward the tip. Berry extremely variable, up to 3 dm. long and 2 dm. thick, green or yellow when ripe.

Distribution

Papayos are grown throughout the tropics of the world, chiefly at low eleva- tions, and tend to become escapes everywhere. In Panama they are one of the commonest weed trees, and the quality of their fruits varies from the sublime to the ridiculous.

Distribution Map

 
  • Introduced distribution
Introduced into
  • Southern America Brazil Acre
  • Amapí
  • Amazonas
  • Parí
  • Rondônia
  • Roraima
  • Tocantins
  • Alagoas
  • Bahia
  • Ceará
  • Maranh
  • Paraába
  • Pernambuco
  • Piauá
  • Rio Grande do Norte
  • Sergipe
  • Paraní
  • Rio Grande do Sul
  • Santa Catarina
  • Espirito Santo
  • Minas Gerais
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • São Paulo
  • Brazilia Distrito Federal
  • Goiás
  • Mato Grosso
  • Mato Grosso do Sul

 Information From

Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
  • A Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
Caricaceae
World Flora Online Data. 2017.
  • B CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
MBG Floras Images
http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
  • C Missouri Botanical Garden
  • D Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora Mesoamericana
http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
  • E Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora de Panama
http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
  • F Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora de Nicaragua
http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
  • G Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  • H Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora of North America @ efloras.org
http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  • I Flora of North America Association
World Flora Online consortium
http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
World Flora Online Data. 2018.
  • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).