Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
  • Sp. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000587875. Accessed on: 31 Oct 2020'

General Information

Climbers, herbaceous, 1-1.5 m. Stems and branches green, 5- or 6-sulcate, slender, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Leaves biternate, triangular in outline; petioles 3-4 cm; leaflets subsessile; blades thinly papery, margin sparsely serrate or pinnately parted, abaxially sparsely villous on midvein and lateral veins, adaxially subglabrous or sparsely pilosulose; terminal blade obliquely lanceolate or subrhombic, 3-8 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex acuminate; lateral ones slightly smaller, ovate or narrowly elliptic. Panicles few flowered, ca. as long as or slightly longer than
leaves; peduncles straight, 4-8 cm, tendrils spiralled. Sepals 4, ciliate, outer 2 ovate, 8-10 mm, inner 2 narrowly elliptic, ca. 2 × as long as outer ones. Petals milky-white, obovate. Stamens (male flowers) ca. as long as or slightly longer than petals; filaments sparsely long villous. Ovary (female flowers) obovoid or sometimes subglobose, pubescent. Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid, 1.5-3 × 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ca. 5 mm in diam.; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate. Fl. summer-autumn, fr. autumn-early winter.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Sp. Pl. 366. 1753.

    Trepadoras herbáceas, pequeñas o grandes; tallos 5–6 acostillados, glabros o puberulentos. Folíolos ovados a oblongos o lanceolados, 2–8 cm de largo y 1–2.5 cm de ancho, agudos a acuminados en el ápice, margen profundamente inciso-dentado, glabros o pubescentes, folíolo terminal peciolulado, los laterales cortamente peciolulados a sésiles; pecíolo 1–1.8 cm de largo, estípulas lanceoladas, 1 mm de largo. Inflorescencia de tirsos umbeloides largamente pedunculados, en los zarcillos, flores hasta 4–5 mm de largo, glabras; sépalos pubescentes; disco con 2 glándulas suborbiculares conspicuas. Fruto subgloboso, 3–4 cm de largo, 3-lobado, membranáceo, pubescente; semillas 3–5 mm de diámetro, negras, arilo cordiforme.

    Ocasional a frecuente, en áreas alteradas, en todo el país; 0–2000 m; fl jul–dic, fr ago–mar; Hernández 623, Moreno 18003; sur de Estados Unidos a Sudamérica, las Antillas y en los trópicos del Viejo Mundo. Está estrechamente relacionada con C. microcarpum.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Annual vines; stems 5- or 6-ribbed, glabrous or minutely pubescent. Leaves biternate; leaflets oblong to ovate, obtuse or subacute at apex, attenuate or acute at the base, 2-8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, deeply incised-dentate, membranous, pubescent or glabrate; stipules subulate, small. Thyrses long-pedunculate on a tendril, umbellike in appearance. Flowers yellowish white, mostly 4-5 mm long; sepals 4, the outer 2 small, pubescent, the inner 2 large, glabrous, oblong, ca. 4 mm long; petals obovate, attenuate, equal to the inner sepals, the scale round, to 2.5 mm long, the deflexed appendage oblong, villous especially along the mar- gins, the crest obovate, orange; disc with 2 conspicuous suborbicular, glabrous glands 0.5 mm long; filaments pilose, those of the staminate flowers to 3.5 mm long. Capsules subglobose, 3-lobed, 3-4 cm long, membranous, inflated, pubes- cent, green to brown or reddish brown; seeds globose, black, 5 mm long, the hilum large, bilobed.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
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    "Much-branched, to 2 m; lfls ovate, incised, cuneate to the base; fls white, 5 mm wide; fr globose to ovoid, 3–4 cm thick; 2n=22. Native of trop. Amer., escaped from cult. in se. U.S. and occasionally n. to N.J., O., Ill., and Mo. Summer."

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    Morphology

    In var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume (see Radlk. l.c. 387) the fruits are 1–2 cm. long, but as so many specimens lack mature fruits the varieties are not separated in the following citation.

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    A slender climber, like the last (Cardiospermum grandiflorum), but with much smaller flowers

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Annual straggling minutely puberulous herbaceous or slightly woody climber, sometimes flowering when only 25 cm. tall; stems with internodes 4–7 cm. long.

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    Leaves biternate, triangular; petiole (0·5)0·9–3·5 cm. long; rhachis 0·4–2 cm. long; terminal leaflet 2·5–4·5(6) × 0·7–2 cm; lateral leaflets 2·5–4·5(5) × 0·8–2(3·5) cm.; lamina bright green with a paler under surface, only the main veins raised, apex acuminate, margin incised-serrate, base attenuate; stipules 2 minute caducous scales.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stamens with filaments 3 mm. long, free or slightly connate at the base; anthers 0·5 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary hirsute; style-branches clavate, shortly plumose.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Inflorescence a reduced complex axillary corymbose thyrse, abortively 3-flowered; peduncle 4–9 cm. long, very sparsely puberulous, multi-bracteate.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers white to yellowish, 2–3 mm. long.

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    Sepals with lateral ones c. 1 mm. long, anterior and posterior ones c. 3 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Petals 4–5 mm. long, posterior ones bearing recurved clavate appendages provided with hairs which cause the two free ends to cohere.

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    Seed 5 mm. in diam., reniform.

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    Leaves pale green, stipulate, thin, biternate, triangular in outline, (3–)5–10 cm. long, 5–12 cm. wide, composed of 3 ± equal divisions each of a petiolule and 3 leaflets or deeply trifid leaflet; petiole 0.4–6 cm. long, pubescent; first order petiolules 0.5–3 cm. long, subequal or often the lateral ones somewhat longer than median one; leaflets sessile or with short secondary petiolules, sparsely pubescent when young, later glabrescent except for main nerves, the terminal one ovate, 1.5–6.5 cm. long, 0.8–2.5 cm. wide, acute to acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, apiculate, attenuate to rounded at the base, serrate to deeply dentate or pinnatipartite, rarely ± entire.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescences corymbose, the rhachis bearing 3–4, 2–5-flowered raceme-like thyrses; peduncle below tendrils 1.5–10.5 cm. long, the part above 0.2–1.2 cm. long; secondary peduncles 0.3–1.7 cm. long; pedicels (0–)1–2 mm. long, lengthening to 5 mm. in fruit.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flowers said not to be scented; sepals yellow-green, unequal, the outer ± round, 1 mm. diameter, the inner larger and ovate, 2–3 mm. long, 1–2 mm. wide; petals white, cream, greenish or yellow, elliptic to obovate, 2–3 mm. long; appendages yellow at tip, hairy; disk of 2 curved elements 1 mm. long.

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    Stamens 8; filaments ± 2 mm. long, pilose.

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    Ovary ± 2 mm. diameter; style 0.5 mm. long, with yellow stigma equalling it.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit yellow-green turning greenish brown to reddish or dark brown, obtetrahedral, 1–3.5 cm. long, 1.8–4 cm. wide, dehiscing into 3 segments, at first densely puberulous or pubescent.

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    Fig. 25/1–4.

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    Seeds black, globose, 5 mm. diameter, with a reniform or crescentic hilar area, 3–4 mm. wide.

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    Annual herbaceous or slightly woody climber, 0.3–3 mm. long; stems deeply grooved, straw-coloured with grooves green.

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    Annual, herbaceous or slightly woody climber. Leaves 2-ternate, leaflets incised-serrate. Flowers 2-6 mm long. Fruit obversely tetrahedroid. Flowers white.

  • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Habit

    Liana/volúvel/trepadeira

  • Provided by: [G].Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    • vines

    • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
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      Ecology

      Extending into drier regions.

    • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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      Habitat

      Streambanks, riverine forest.

    • Provided by: [E].e-Flora of South Africa
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      Distribution

      The species is found throughout the tropics and also enters into certain sub- tropical regions. Though no specimens are available from Panama, the species will probably be found there.

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      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Southern America Brazil Amazonas
      • Parí
      • Bahia
      • Maranh
      • Paraába
      • Pernambuco
      • Sergipe
      • Paraní
      • Rio Grande do Sul
      • Santa Catarina
      • Espirito Santo
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • São Paulo
      • Mato Grosso
      • Mato Grosso do Sul

        Bibliography

       Information From

      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • A Missouri Botanical Garden
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • E All Rights Reserved
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • G Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • H
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • I Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • J Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • K The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      Sapindaceae
      • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).