Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
  • Gard. & Forest.
  • Gum Elemi


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000576316. Accessed on: 04 Dec 2020'

General Information

Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Gard. & Forest 3: 260. 1890; Pistacia simaruba L.; Elaphrium simaruba (L.) Rose.

Arboles, 3–25 m de alto, corteza lisa, rojo-bronce a verde-rojiza, exfoliante. Hojas una vez pinnadas, hasta 34.5 cm de largo y 23.5 cm de ancho, puberulentas a glabras o glabrescentes en la haz, densa a escasamente pubescentes en el envés, raquis no alado; folíolos 5–9 (–11), obovados a ovados, ápice abrupta y corta a largamente acuminado, enteros, lustrosos en la haz, del mismo color en ambas superficies o más claros en el envés. Panículas hasta 21.5 cm de largo (racemiformes y 6–12.5 cm de largo cuando en fruto); flores estaminadas con (4) 5 sépalos, éstos 1/4 del largo de los pétalos, pétalos (4) 5, ca 3 mm de largo; flores pistiladas con 3 (4) sépalos, éstos 1/4 del largo de los pétalos, pétalos 3 (4), ca 3 mm de largo. Frutos ovoides a elipsoides, 10–13 mm de largo, 3-valvados, rojos y verdes a morado obscuros al madurar.

Común, en bosques secos, bosques de galería y en las partes más secas de ambientes húmedos, en todas las zonas del país; 10–1100 m; fl mar–ago, fr durante todo el año; Stevens 16046, 22893; Estados Unidos (Florida), noreste de México a Perú y Brasil, también en las Antillas. Comúnmente usada como cercos vivos. "Jiñocuabo".

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    ish-woolly, becoming reddish-brown, covered with yellowish lenticels and con- spicuously marked by large elevated cordate leaf scars. Leaves odd-pinnate, 21- 35 cm long and 12-23.5 cm wide; petioles puberulent basally and sparingly pubescent above, or glabrous to rarely yellowish-woolly, 7-11.5 cm long; leaf- lets 5-7(-9), long-acuminate, inequilateral basally, the laterals broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, the terminals obovate, membranaceous to coriaceous, the margins entire, conspicuously lanate when young to nearly glabrate in age, becoming sparingly pubescent above, at least the veins pubescent beneath, slightly shiny above, paler beneath, the blades 4.5-14.5 cm long and 2.5-8 cm wide; petiolules pubescent to glabrous, 5-31 mm long; rachis not winged. Inflorescences usually glabrous, reddish; staminate 17-28 cm long, longer than the young leaves; car- pellate 4-10.5 cm long, ca. as long as the young leaves. Flowers 3- or 5-merous, with glabrous pedicels 2-4 mm long in flower and 5-16 mm long in fruit; staminate 5-merous, the calyx shallowly 5-lobed, the lobes less than 1 mm long, the petals 5, ovate-elliptic, acute and incurved apically, 2-2.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, the stamens 10, ca. as long as the petals, the filaments 1.5 mm long, the disc 5-lobed; carpellate 3-merous, the calyx lobes 3, the petals 3, ovate, acute and incurved apically, 2 mm long and ca. 1 mm wide, the stamens 6, ca. half as long as the petals, the ovary 3-loculed, ovoid, ca. 2 mm high, the stigma 3-lobed. Fruits subglobular, pointed at both ends, slightly 3-angled, green to bright pink, maturing reddish-brown and drying brownish, 8-13 mm long and 7-9 mm in diameter, dehiscing by 3 obovate valves; pyrenes 1(-2), 1-seeded, 3- angled, bony, lenticular-ovoid, pinkish to whitish, attached to the pedicel by a persistent whitish column ca. 2 mm long.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Trees, 5-20 m high; bark coppery-red, shiny, thin, peeling off in thin papery sheets to expose a smooth bright-green layer; branchlets glabrous to rarely yellow-

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Bursera simaruba ranges from a bush to large trees over 15 meters in height. The trunk is a reddish brown that peels off in thing layers. New growth is more greenish. The leaves are compound ranging from 3 to 9 leaflets. They are arranged alternately and the leaflet margins are entire. The incomplete, imprefect actinomorphic flowers appear in before new leaves sprout during the spring in panicles. Plants are monoecious with every individual producing both male and female flowers. The staminate flower calyx and corolla is 5 lobed with 10 stamens. The carpellate flowers calyx and corolla is 3 lobed with 6 infertile stamens. The fruit is a berry with three seeds.

  • Provided by: [E].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Bursera simaruba grows in Dry Broadleaf Evergreen Formations (coppice) on both a limestone and sand substrate. It is a common species throughout the islands. It is also found in the Pine Woodlands.

  • Provided by: [E].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Widespread throughout the Caribbean region, occurring from coastal north- eastern Mexico through Central America, and southern Florida through the West Indies, to Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. In Panama flowering from mid- March to mid-June, and collected in fruit in all months but September.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Bursera simaruba occurs on all islands of the Lucayan Archipelago as well as Florida, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. In the Lucayan Archipelago there is a related endemic species (Bursera frenningiae) that occurs in the southern islands.

  • Provided by: [E].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Uses

    There are many cultural uses of Bursera simaruba. Within the Lucayan Archipelago it is used medicinally to treat circulatory problems as well as in strengthening and aphrodisiac teas. Throughout its range it is propagated as an ornamental. Also in areas of Central and South America is used to make living fence poles due to its ability to grow from cuttings of the trunks.

  • Provided by: [E].Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Amazonas
    • Roraima

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Gum ElemiEnglishBS
    GammalammeEnglishBS
    Gumbo limboEnglishBS
    Tourist treeEnglishBS

     Information From

    Burseraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
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    MBG Floras Images
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    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve
    http://www.levypreserve.org
    Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. 2020. Flora by Common Name and by Scientific Name. Bahamas National Trust. Available at www.levypreserve.org Accessed on (2020/07/09).
    • D Ethan Freid All rights Preserved
    • E Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve. All rights Preserved
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • H Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • J Botanic Gardens Conservation International