Anacardium occidentale L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • caju


This taxon is accepted by Anacardiaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees or shrubs, 4-10 m tall; branchlets glabrous to subglabrous. Petiole 1-1.5 cm; leaf blade obovate, 8-11 × 6-8.5 cm, leathery, glabrous on both sides, base broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex rounded, truncate to retuse, lateral veins ca. 12 pairs, reticulate venation pattern prominent on both sides. Inflorescence paniculate, 10-20 cm, glabrous to densely grayish sericeous; floral subtending bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 mm, keeled, grayish sericeous abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Flower sessile to shortly pedicellate. Calyx grayish sericeous abaxially, ca. 4 × 1.5 mm. Petals 5, greenish yellow to red, linear-lanceolate, 7-9 × ca. 1.2 mm, grayish sericeous abaxially, minutely pubescent to subglabrous adaxially. Stamens 7-10, larger one 8-9 mm in male flowers, 5-6 mm in bisexual flowers, sterile stamens 3-4 mm. Ovary ca. 2 mm, glabrous; style 4-5 mm. Fleshy hypocarp 3-7 × 4-5 cm, purplish red at maturity; drupe reniform, 2-2.5 × ca. 1.5 cm. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Jul-Aug.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Anacardium occidentale L., Sp. Pl. 383. 1753.

    Arboles pequeños, 2–12 m de alto y 40 cm de ancho, con corona ancha y ramificación tortuosa, corteza exterior lisa con lenticelas dispersas, hasta áspera con fisuras longitudinales, corteza interna gruesa, rosado-anaranjada pálida a café rojiza, tricomas blancos, erectos, 0.1–0.2 mm de largo. Hojas angosta a ampliamente obovadas, a veces ampliamente oblongas, ocasionalmente ovadas o elípticas, 6.9–24 cm de largo y 3.4–11.8 cm de ancho, ápice redondeado u obtuso, a veces cortamente acuminado, levemente emarginado o truncado, base cuneada u obtusa, a veces atenuada o auriculada, glabras, nervio principal impreso a apenas prominente en la haz, muy prominente en el envés, 8–18 pares de nervios secundarios, apenas prominentes en la haz, prominentes en el envés; pecíolo 3–25 mm de largo. Inflorescencias 11–29 cm de largo, escasa a densamente pubescente hacia las ramas distales, pedúnculo 1–6 cm de largo, pedicelos 2.3–5 mm de largo, escasa a densamente pubescentes; flores con sépalos lanceolados a estrechamente ovados, 3–6.5 mm de largo y 0.8–2 mm de ancho, pubescentes abaxialmente; corola cilíndrica hasta el limbo, pétalos lineares a loriformes, (7–) 8–13 mm de largo y 1–2 mm de ancho, reflexos apicalmente, escasamente pubescentes, blancos o verde pálidos frecuentemente con líneas rosadas o rojas en la antesis, tornándose rojo obscuros después de la polinización; flores bisexuales con (8–) 10 (–12) estambres, 1 o raramente 2 mucho más grandes, filamento(s) 7.3–11.5 mm de largo, glabros, los estambres restantes 2–4 mm de largo, todos con anteras normales, tubo estaminal 0.3–0.9 mm de largo, ligeramente desigual en longitud alrededor de la circunferencia, ovario ca 1.5 mm de largo, glabro, estilo terminal, recto, 5.7–8.5 mm de largo, estigma punctiforme; flores estaminadas similares a las bisexuales, pistilodio 0.3–1 mm de largo; hipocarpo maduro piriforme, mucho más grande en las formas cultivadas que en las poblaciones espontáneas, 5–15 cm de largo, amarillo, anaranjado o rojo. Fruto subreniforme, 2–3.5 cm de largo, gris o café cuando maduro.

    Cultivada y naturalizada en todo el país; 0–1345 m; fl y fr dic–may; Sandino 351, Stevens 7264; probablemente nativa del norte de Sudamérica al sureste de Brasil, cultivada e introducida en todos los trópicos. "Marañón".

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Tree to 8(-10) m. Leaves ? aggregated toward the apex of the branchlets, the petioles 5-20 mm long; blades broadly oblong-ovate to somewhat obovate, obtuse to rounded or slightly emarginate at the apex, cuneate to obtuse or rounded at the base, glabrous, 6-15.5 cm long, 3.5-9 cm broad, with prominulous reticulation on both surfaces. Panicles 7-16.5 cm long, with gray pubescence; bracts usually at least sparsely puberulent, -those subtending the lower primary branches of the panicle oblanceolate or oblong and foliaceous (though much reduced in size), those subtending the distal branches and flowers or flower-groups ovate and resembling the calyx-lobes. Flowers with pedicels 0.5-7 mm long; calyx-segments lanceolate to lance-ovate, 2.5-5 mm long, 1-2.3 mm broad, moderately grayish-appressed- puberulent dorsally; petals linear to linear-lanceolate or narrowly linear-elliptic, 6-13 mm long, 1-2 mm broad, greenish-yellow with red streaks at anthesis, turning dark red with age; stamens 10, 1 much longer than the others and extending well beyond the point at which the petals become recurved, the filaments glabrous; ovary 0.2-0.5 mm long. Hypocarp red or yellow at maturity, to 10 cm long and 5 cm broad, ? obovate. Nut gray, 2-3.2 cm long, 1-2 cm broad.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Ovary of the bisexual flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style ± 4 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Fruit on a very thickened fleshy pedicel, kidney-shaped, laterally umbilicate, 2–3 cm. long, 1.5–2.5 cm. broad, greenish yellow.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Seed kidney-shaped, with a reddish brown testa, 2 large white cotyledons and a small embryo.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Stamens unequal in length, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Petals linear-lanceolate, 7–13 mm. long, 1–1.7 mm. broad, yellowish white to pale reddish, puberulous on both faces.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Calyx-segments 4–5 mm. long, 1–2.2 mm. broad, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish puberulous outside.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    A shrub or tree up to 10 m. high; branchlets rather thick, glabrous, striate.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 mm. long, 2–5 mm. broad, ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish puberulous outside, glabrous inside.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long, ± 2 mm. broad at the base, semicylindric; lamina broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, 6.5–18 cm. long, 3.8–10 cm. broad, obtuse to rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous and shining; midrib not raised above, very prominent beneath; lateral nerves 9–14 pairs, slightly raised.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    A shrub or tree up to 10 m. tall, with rather thick glabrous striate branchlets.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels c. 0·5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 × 2–5 mm., ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish-puberulous outside, glabrous inside.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long and c. 2 mm. broad at the base, hemicylindric; lamina slightly discolorous, shining, 6·5–18 × 3·8–10 cm., broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, obtuse, rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous; midrib not raised above, very prominent below, lateral nerves 9–17 pairs, slightly raised, reticulation slightly visible.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Petals yellowish-white to pale reddish, 7–13 × 1–1·7 mm., linear-lanceolate, puberulous on both faces.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Calyx segments 4–5 × 1–2·2 mm., lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish-puberulous outside.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Ovary of the hermaphrodite flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style c. 4 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Stamens unequal, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Fruit greenish-yellow, 2–3 × 1·5–2·5 × 1·5 cm., laterally umbilicate, with a very thickened and fleshy pedicel, 6–7·5 × 4·5 cm.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Tree

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    Widely cultivated and commonly naturalized in the bush, chiefly in coastal districts.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Present and often common by introduction and cultivation throughout the tropics of the New and Old World, becoming naturalized in many places; probably native from Costa Rica to Brazil and Ecuador.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Common Names

    The Cashew tree

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    cajuPortuguese
    acajaibaPortuguese
    maraiion jocote maraiion
    caju-anãoPortuguese
    cajueiroPortuguese

     Information From

    Anacardiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • H Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Assessment
    http://www.bgci.org/
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • M Botanic Gardens Conservation International