Amaranthus viridis L.
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2
  • bledo calaii


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Amaranthus viridis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000530552. Accessed on: 18 Nov 2019'

General Information

Stem erect, green or somewhat tinged purple, 40-80 cm tall, conspicuously angulate, slightly branched, glabrous. Petiole 3-6 cm, green or somewhat tinged purple; leaf blade ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-elliptic, 3-9 × 2.5-6 cm, base broadly cuneate or subtruncate, margin entire or slightly undulate, apex notched or rounded, with a pointed mucro. Complex thyrsoid structures terminal, 6-12 × 1.5-3 cm, branched, composed of spikes; spikes erect, slender, terminal ones longer than lateral ones; rachis 2-2.5 cm. Bracts and bracteoles lanceolate, shorter than 1 mm, apex pointed. Tepals oblong or broadly oblanceolate, 1.2-1.5 mm, apex acute. Stamens shorter than perianth; stigmas 3 or 2. Utricles green, longer than perianth, globose, slightly compressed, ca. 2 mm in diam., very rugose, indehiscent. Seeds black or brownish black, subglobose, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 34.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Plants annual, sometimes short-lived perennial in tropics and subtropics, glabrous. Stems erect, simple or with lateral branches (especially distally), 0.2-1 m. Leaves: petiole 1/2-11/2 as long as blade; blade rhombic-ovate or ovate, 1-7 × 0.5-5 cm, base rounded, cuneate, or attenuate, margins entire, plane, apex obtuse, rounded, or emarginate, mucronate. Inflorescences slender spikes aggregated into elongate terminal panicles, also from distal axils, green, leafless at least distally. Bracts of pistillate flowers ovate to lanceolate, 1 mm, shorter than tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 3, narrowly elliptic, obovate-elliptic or spatulate, not clawed, ± equal, 1.2-1.7 mm, apex rounded or nearly acute, mucronate or not; style branches erect; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers inconspicuous, mostly at tips of inflorescences; tepals 3; stamens 3. Utricles ovoid to compressed-ovoid, 1-1.6 mm, equaling or slightly exceeding tepals, prominently or faintly rugose, indehiscent. Seeds black or dark brown, subglobose to thick-lenticular, 1 mm diam., minutely punctulate, rather dull.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Amaranthus viridis L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1405. 1763; A. gracilis Desf. ex Poir.

    Anuales, 0.15–0.6 (–0.8) m de alto, tallos erectos o ascendentes, glabros, a menudo tornándose escasamente pubérulos hacia arriba; monoicas. Hojas rómbico-ovadas, ovadas o triangulares, 1.5–5 cm de largo y 1–4 cm de ancho, variables en tamaño dependiendo de su posición, generalmente con una pequeña hendidura en el ápice, cuneadas o redondeadas en la base, glabras o con tricomas dispersos a lo largo del nervio principal. Cimas con un reducido número de ramitas, inflorescencia en su mayor parte compacta, partes espiciformes terminales en el tallo y las ramas, frecuentemente con algunas ramas laterales, flores estaminadas en el ápice de las partes espiciformes, varias por cima, a veces algunas solitarias en las cimas inferiores, bráctea ampliamente lanceolada u ovada, 0.7–1.2 mm de largo, nervio principal cortamente excurrente, bractéolas obviamente más cortas que las flores, las 2 inferiores angostamente ovadas, 0.6–1 mm de largo, nervio principal cortamente excurrente, las superiores similares; flores estaminadas con 3 tépalos iguales, angostamente ovados, 1–1.2 mm de largo, algo cimbiformes, más anchos cerca del medio, mucronados en el ápice, filamentos 0.7–1.2 mm de largo, anteras 0.4–0.5 mm de largo; flores pistiladas con 3 tépalos iguales, angostamente ovados, ligulados o ligeramente espatulados, 1.2–1.3 mm de largo, frecuentemente con 1 ó 2 nervios laterales en la mitad superior, algo cimbiformes, más anchos arriba o cerca de la mitad, mucronados, membranáceos; estilo 0.2 mm de largo, frecuentemente indefinido, algo cónico, estigmas 2–3, 0.3–0.4 mm de largo. Utrículo membranáceo, muy rugoso, indehiscente; semilla lenticular, 0.8–1 mm de diámetro, finamente reticulada, café obscura lustrosa.

    Ocasional, en sitios alterados y pantanos salobres en todo el país; 0–400 m; fl y fr probablemente durante todo el año; Seymour 6068, Stevens 23201; pantropical, alcanzando las regiones templadas, donde es frecuentemente introducida. Algunos especímenes nicaragüenses (Castro 2248, Stevens 17449, 20047) tienen utrículos lisos y rugosos en el mismo individuo y son intermedios a A. lividus L.; los datos de Sudamérica de Eliasson sugieren además que A. viridis y A. lividus (que sería el nombre más antiguo) no pueden separarse en el Neotrópico. Por el contrario, Townsend encuentra que A. lividus claramente se separa de A. viridis en el Viejo Mundo. Por lo tanto es necesario un estudio biosistemático a escala mundial, para poder tomar una decisión.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Rather delicate glabrous annuals to as much as I m. high, the branches ascend- ing. Leaves glabrous, entire to minutely crenulate, deltoid- to rhombic-ovate, apically emarginate to rounded and mucronate, basally truncate to subacute, 1.5-6 cm. long, 1-4 cm. broad, the petioles 0.5-4 cm. long. Inflorescences of thyrses racemosely disposed, the terminal and axillary thyrses cylindric, mostly less than 7 mm. broad. Flowers polygamo-monoecious or monoecious; bracts 'and bracteoles subequal, lanceolate to ovate, ca. 1 mm. long; sepals 3, linear-oblong to pbovate, rounded, mucronate, 1-1.5 mm. long, the midrib dark green, the margins scariose; stamens 3, discrete, 1-1.5 mm. long; ovary compressed-globose; style 1, minute, stigmata 3, longer than the style. Fruit an indehiscent, strongly rugose utricle, 1-1.5 mm. long, 1-1.5 broad; seeds cochleate-orbiculate, dark red to black, dull, minutely pebbled, 1-1.2 mm. broad.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    "Monoecious; erect, to 1 m; lvs broadly ovate or rhombic- ovate, 3–7 cm, often retuse, acute or rounded at base; thyrses few or several, the lateral ascending, not much shorter than the terminal, forming a panicle 1–2 dm; bracts much shorter than the fls; sep of the pistillate fls 3, oblanceolate, shorter than the fr, acute; fr compressed-obovoid, 1.5 mm, very rugose when dry, indehiscent; seed orbicular, sharp-edged, 1 mm; 2n=34. Probably native to tropical Amer., now a pantropic weed and occasionally adventive in our range."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Seed c. 1–1.25 mm. in diam., circular, only slightly compressed, more or less shining, reticulate and with shallow the verrucae on reticulum, the verrucae with shape of the areolae.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stigmas 2–3, short, erect or almost so.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Perianth segments 3, very rarely 4, those of the male flowers oblong-elliptic, acute, concave, c. 1.5 mm. long, shortly mucronate; those of the female flowers narrowly oblong to narrowly spathulate, finally 1.25–1.75 mm. long, the borders white- membranous, minutely mucronate or not, midrib green and often thickened above.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to lanceolate-ovate, whitish-membranous with a very short pale or reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib, bracteoles shorter than the perianth (c. 1 mm. long).

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers green, in slender, axillary or terminal, frequently paniculate spikes c. 2.5–12 cm. long and 2–5 mm. wide, or in the lower part of the stem in dense axillary clusters to c. 7 mm. in diam.; male and female flowers intermixed but the latter more numerous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Capsule subglobose, 1.25–1.75 mm. in diam., not or only slightly exceeding the perianth, indehiscent or rupturing irregularly, very strongly rugose throughout at maturity.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves glabrous or shortly to fairly long-pilose on the lower surface of the primary or most of the venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 10 cm. long and the longest commonly longer than the lamina), lamina deltoid-ovate to rhomboid-oblong, 2–7 × 1.5–5.5 cm., the margins occasionally obviously sinuate, shortly cuneate to subtruncate below, obtuse and narrowly to clearly emarginate at the apex, minutely mucronate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stem rather slender, sparingly to considerably branched, angular, glabrous or more frequently increasingly (but still rather sparsely) hairy upwards (especially in the inflorescence) with short or longer and rather floccose multicellular hairs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Short-lived perennial herb (sometimes flowering in first year), erect or more rarely ascending, 10–75 (100) cm.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Annual herb, erect or more rarely ascending, 10–75(–100) cm.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves glabrous or shortly to fairly long-pilose on the lower surface of the primary or most of the venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to ± 10 cm. long and the longest commonly longer than the lamina); lamina deltoid-ovate to rhombic-oblong, 2–7 × 1.5–5.5 cm., the margins occasionally obviously sinuate, shortly cuneate to subtruncate below, obtuse and narrowly to clearly emarginate at the tip, minutely mucronate.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers green, in slender axillary or terminal, frequently paniculate spikes ± 2.5–12 cm. long and 2–5 mm. wide, or in the lower part of the stem in dense axillary clusters to ± 7 mm. in diameter; ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed but the latter more numerous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Perianth-segments 3(–4); ♂ oblong-oval, acute, concave, ± 1.5 mm., shorty mucronate; ♀ narrowly oblong to narrowly spathulate, finally 1.25–1.75 mm., the borders white-membranous, minutely mucronate or not, midrib green and often thickened above.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stigmas 2–3, short, erect or almost so.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Capsule subglobose, 1.25–1.75 mm., not or slightly exceeding the perianth, indehiscent or rupturing irregularly, very strongly rugose throughout.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Fig. 4/8, 5/5, 6.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Short-lived perennial herb, up to 1 m high. Inflorescence a terminal branched or spike-like panicle. Fruits indehiscent, closely and regularly wrinkled, not or slightly exceeding perianth. Flowers green.

  • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Hierba monoica, erecta, 0.3-1 m de altura. Tallo verde a rojizo, glabro a puberulento, tricomas hasta 0.5 mm de largo. Hojas pecioladas; pecíolo 0.5-5.5 cm de largo, glabro a puberulento; lámina ovado-rómbica a elíptica, 0.5-5.3 x 0.3-4 cm, glabra a puberulenta en las nervaduras, venación primaria y secundaria con gránulos blanquecinos, terciaria verde oscura brillante, base redondeada a cuneada, ápice obtuso, mucronado hasta 5 mm de largo. Inflorescencias en panículas con espigas de glomérulos, terminales y axilares, pedunculadas, espigas 5-8 x 0.4-0.6 cm, verdes; pedúnculo 3-5 mm de largo; bráctea 1, carinada, membranácea, mayor que la mitad del perianto, glabra, con un nervio medio; ápice obtuso; bractéolas 2, similares a la bráctea en forma, consistencia y tamaño. Flores masculinas escasas y ubicadas hacia el ápice de la inflorescencia. Estambres 3; filamentos hasta 0.5 mm de largo; anteras hasta 0.5 mm de largo. Flores femeninas 1-1.5 x 0.5-0.7 mm, verdes a blanquecinas. Sépalos 3, iguales, membranáceos, 1-1.5 x 0.5-0.7 mm, que cubren las 3/4 partes del fruto, con un nervio medio, ápice obtuso a agudo. Ovario globoso a subgloboso, 1-2 x 1-1.5 mm; estilo no diferenciado; estigmas 3-4, fimbriados, 0.5-1 mm de largo. Fruto en utrículo hasta 2 x 15 mm, muy rugoso, con protuberancias que forman surcos. Semilla 1, lenticular, 1-1.5 mm de diámetro, parda.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Colombia
    • Stem rather slender, sparingly to considerably branched, angular, glabrous or more frequently increasingly hairy upwards (especially in the inflorescence) with short or longer and rather floccose multicellular hairs.

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to lanceolate-ovate, whitish and membranous with a very short pale or reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib; bracteoles shorter than the perianth (± 1 mm.).

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Seed ± 1–1.25 mm., round, only slightly compressed, dark brown to black with an often paler thick border, ± shining, reticulate and with shallow scurfy verrucae on the reticulum, the verrucae with the shape of the areolae.

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Habit

      herbs

    • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Disturbed places.

    • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Presumably a native of the Old World tropics, this weedy species is adventive around Balboa (fide Standley, in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 27:173. 1928). It is also adventive in the eastern United States.

    • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Native to Europe.

    • Provided by: [F].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Introduced distribution
      Introduced into
      • Southern America Brazil Amazonas
      • Parí
      • Bahia
      • Ceará
      • Maranh
      • Paraába
      • Pernambuco
      • Piauá
      • Rio Grande do Norte
      • Paraní
      • Rio Grande do Sul
      • Santa Catarina
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • São Paulo
      • Brazilia Distrito Federal
      • Goiás
      • Mato Grosso
      • Mato Grosso do Sul

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      bledo calaii
      Slender amaranth, tropical green amaranth, green amaranth
      caruruPortuguese

       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Flora of North America Association
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • F All Rights Reserved
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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      Flora de Nicaragua
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      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
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      • I Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • J Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      Flora de Panama
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      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • L Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).