Amaranthus deflexus L.
  • Mant. Pl.
  • caruru-rasteiro


This taxon is accepted by Amaranthaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Plants short-lived perennial or annual, pubescent in distal parts of plant or becoming glabrescent at maturity. Stems ascending or prostrate, profusely branched basally, radiating from rootstock, mostly 0.2-0.5 m. Leaves: petiole 1/2 as long as to equaling blade; blade rhombic-ovate or ovate to lanceolate, 1-2 × 0.5-1 cm, base tapering or cuneate, margins entire, plane or slightly undulate, apex subacute, obtuse, or retuse or shallowly emarginate, mucronulate. Inflorescences terminal, erect, compact, pyramidal panicles and also some axillary clusters, green or silvery green, occasionally tinged with red, leafless at least distally. Bracts of pistillate flowers linear, 0.5-1 mm, 1/2 as long as tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 2-3, narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, not clawed, equal or subequal, 1.2-2 mm, apex broadly acute; style branches erect; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers clustered at tips of inflorescences; tepals 2-3; stamens 2-3. Utricles marked with 2(-3) green lines that intersect at apex and divide fruit into halves or quarters, slightly to distinctly inflated, ellipsoid, 2-3 mm, distinctly longer than tepals, smooth (in dry plants wrinkled or rugose), indehiscent. Seeds very dark brown to black, 1-1.2 mm diam., shiny, filling only proximal portion of fruit.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    "Monoecious; prostrate or ascending, 2–5 dm; lvs lanceolate to broadly ovate, 1–3 cm; petiole about equaling the blade; terminal panicle dense, narrowly ovoid, 2–5 cm; smaller clusters also present in the upper axils; bracts shorter than the fr; sep of the pistillate fls 2, oblanceolate, two-thirds as long as the fr, acute; fr smooth, flat-ellipsoid, 2.5 mm, half as wide, indehiscent; seed obovate, shining, 1.2 mm; 2n=34. Probably native to tropical Amer., occasionally found in waste places in our range, especially along the coast."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pale-membranous with a shortly excurrent greenish midrib, bracteoles usually about half the length of the perianth.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers green, in slender and lax to stout and dense terminal and axillary spikes c. 2–10 cm long and 5–12 (20) mm. wide, the terminal spike not rarely with rather short, stout branches and the lowest inflorescences dense, subglobose clusters to c. 1 cm in diam.; male and female flowers intermixed, the males generally rather few.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves moderately to more or less densely furnished on the margins and inferior surface (especially of the principal veins) with similar multicellular hairs, long-petiolate (petioles 6–25 mm. long, but rarely, if ever, exceeding the lamina), lamina c. 1–4.5 × 0.5–2.5 cm, broadly ovate to lanceolate (most commonly rhomboid-ovate), subtruncate to shortly cuneate at the base, subacute to obtuse and sometimes shallowly retuse at the mucronulate apex.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stems several, slender to rather stout, usually much-branched from the base upwards, more or less angular, green to reddish, glabrous below but usually increasingly furnished from well below the middle upwards with yellowish, flexuose or crisped multicellular hairs.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb, prostrate to somewhat ascending, (8) 12–45 (80) cm.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, c. 1–1.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm. in diam., black, shining and almost smooth, with a duller, slightly rugose border.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Capsule ellipsoid, sometimes constricted above, 1.75 v 3 mm., obviously exceeding the perianth, scarcely compressed, smooth, indehiscent or irregularly rupturing at maturity.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stigmas 2–3, pale, slender, flexuose, c. 0.4 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perianth segments 2–3, 1.5–2 mm., linear- to oblong-spathulate, obtuse to subacute, male and female similar or the male shorter and somewhat more acute, pale-membranous with the thin to thick green midrib excurrent in a short, paler mucro.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb, prostrate to somewhat ascending, (8–)12–45(–80) cm.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stem slender to rather stout, usually much branched from the base upwards, ± angular, green or reddish, glabrous below but usually increasingly furnished from well below the middle upwards with yellowish flexuous or crisped multicellular hairs.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves moderately to ± densely furnished on the margins and lower surface (especially of the principal veins) with similar multicellular hairs, long-petiolate (petioles ± 6–25 mm. but rarely if ever exceeding the lamina); lamina broadly ovate to lanceolate (most commonly rhombic-ovate), ± 1–4.5 × 0.5–2.5 cm., subtruncate to shortly cuneate at the base, subacute to obtuse and sometimes shallowly retuse at the mucronulate apex.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers green, in slender and lax to stout and dense terminal and axillary spikes ± 2–10 cm. long and 5–12 mm. wide, the terminal spike not rarely with rather short stout branches and the lowest inflorescences dense subglobose clusters to ± 1 cm. in diameter; ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed, the ♂ generally rather few.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fig. 4/1.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pale and membranous with a shortly percurrent greenish midrib, bracteoles usually about half the length of the perianth.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Perianth-segments 2–3, linear- to oblong-spathulate, 1.5–2 mm., obtuse to subacute, ♂ and ♀ similar or ♂ slightly more acute, pale and membranous with the thin to thick green midrib excurrent in a short paler mucro.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stigmas 2–3, pale, slender, flexuous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Capsule ellipsoid, sometimes constricted above, 1.75–3 mm., obviously exceeding the perianth, scarcely compressed, smooth, indehiscent or irregularly rupturing at maturity; Seeds compressed-ellipsoid, ± 1–1.2 × 0.7–0.8 mm., black, shining and almost smooth, with a duller slightly roughened border.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Numerous, annual, herbaceous stems from rootstock up to 400 mm tall. Inflorescence a terminal branched or spike-like panicle. Fruit clearly exceeding perianth, indehiscent, smooth, 1.75-3.00 mm long, rounded or obtuse at apex. Flowers green.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb, up to 0.4 m high. Stems procumbent to ascending, many from rootstock. Leaves with blade ovate to elliptic, 10-45 x 5-25 mm. Flowers: inflorescence a terminal branched or spike-like panicle; female perianth with 2 or 3, linear to oblong, narrowly obovate segments, acute or shortly acuminate at apex, green; Oct.-Feb. Fruit clearly exceeding perianth, indehiscent, smooth, rounded or obtuse at apex.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Dry Grassland. Disturbed places.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Ceará
    • Paraába
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • São Paulo

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    caruru-rasteiroPortuguese
    Large-fruit amaranth, Argentina amaranth, deflexed amaranth, low amaranth

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Amaranthaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • C Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).