Achyranthes aspera L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • abrojo mozote


This taxon is accepted by Amaranthaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs perennial, 20-120 cm tall. Stem quadrangular, pubescent; nodes slightly inflated; branches opposite. Petiole 0.5-1.5 cm, somewhat hairy; leaf blade broadly obovate or elliptic-oblong, 1.5-7 × 0.4-4 mm, papery, both surfaces hairy, base cuneate or rounded, margin entire or undulate, apex obtuse, with a mucro. Spikes terminal, erect, reflexed after anthesis, 10-30 cm; rachis angular, stout, densely hairy. Bracts lanceolate, 3-4 mm, apex acuminate; bracteoles spiny, shiny, 2.5-4.5 mm, rigid, base 2-winged; wings 1.5-2 mm, membranous, margin entire. Tepals lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm, with a vein. Stamens 2.5-3.5 mm; pseudostaminodes truncate or crenate at apex, fimbriate and ciliate. Utricles ovoid, 2.5-3 mm. Seeds brown, ovoid, ca. 2 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Oct. 2n = 42, 48, 84, 96.

  • Provided by: [M].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Plants perennial or annual. Stems 0.4-2 m, pilose or puberulent. Leaf blades elliptic, ovate, or broadly ovate to orbiculate, obovate-orbiculate, or broadly rhombate, 1-20 × 2-6 cm, adpressed-pubescent abaxially and adaxially. Inflorescences to 30 cm; bracts mem-branous; bracteoles long-aristate, spinose; wings attached at sides and base. Flowers: tepals 4 or 5, length 3-7 mm; pseudostaminodes with margins fimbriate at apex, often with dorsal scale. Utricles ± cylindric, 2-4 mm, apex truncate or depressed.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Achyranthes aspera L., Sp. Pl. 204. 1753. A. aspera var. indica L.; A. indica (L.) Mill.

    Hierbas, a veces sufruticosas en la base, perennes, 0.4–1.5 (–2) m de alto, con tallos erectos o escandentes, tallos y ramas glabros y escasamente pubescentes hacia arriba o más o menos densamente pubescentes, con tricomas simples de hasta 1 mm de largo; hermafroditas. Hojas opuestas, elípticas, ovadas, obovadas o suborbiculares, (1–) 2–12 (–18) cm de largo y (1–) 2–7 cm de ancho, abruptamente atenuadas en el ápice, cuneadas o largamente atenuadas en la base, subglabras o pubescentes, densamente en el envés, con tricomas simples y rectos de 0.2–0.7 mm de largo; pecioladas. Inflorescencia de espigas 2–45 cm de largo, terminales en el tallo y las ramas, y en las axilas de las hojas caulinares superiores, brácteas ovadas, deflexas cuando maduras, 2.5–3.8 mm de largo, glabras dorsalmente, margen con tricomas de 0.1–0.3 mm de largo, nervio principal formando una cerda recta y aplanada que excede en un 20–50% la longitud total de la bráctea, bractéolas obviamente más cortas que la flor, ovadas, 2.7–4.2 mm de largo, dorsalmente glabras, margen con tricomas simples de 0.1 mm de largo, nervio principal conspicuamente engrosado, formando una espina fuerte y recta que excede en un 40–60% la longitud total de las bractéolas, endurecida en la base y cortamente connada, cresta ausente, flores solitarias; tépalos 5, lanceolados o angostamente ovados, iguales o algo desiguales, los externos 3.6–7.2 mm de largo, los internos 3.2–6.8 mm de largo, acuminados o atenuados en el ápice, libres en la base, hialinos en el margen, glabros, escariosos, 3 (–5)-nervios, los internos generalmente 1-nervios; estambres 5, filamentos filiformes de 1.4–2.6 mm de largo, unidos en una cúpula poco profunda, sin lobos, anteras biloculares; pseudoestaminodios de contorno rectangular, mucho más cortos que los filamentos, truncados en el ápice, con un apéndice dorsal fimbriado; ovario 1-ovulado, estilo delgado de 0.8–1 mm de largo, estigma penicilado. Utrículo cortamente cilíndrico con un collar en el ápice, membranáceo, indehiscente; semilla cortamente cilíndrica o angostamente ovoide, 1.6–2.5 mm de largo, apenas reticulada, sin arilo; flor cayendo junto con las bractéolas en la madurez.

    Común, en sitios ruderales en todo el país; 0–1300 m; fl y fr jul–mar; Croat 39023, Stevens 16352; ampliamente distribuida en las regiones tropicales y templadas, introducida en América. La longitud de los tépalos y el tamaño de las hojas incrementa con la elevación y hay una tendencia a mayor indumento en las plantas con hojas más pequeñas y tépalos cortos. El nivel actual de conocimiento no nos permite reconocer taxones infraespecíficos para las plantas nicaragüenses. Género con ca 8 especies, nativo de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del Viejo Mundo, sólo esta especie introducida en América.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Erect or procumbent pubescent annuals or perennials, the usually branched stems to 2 m. long. Leaves scantily to densely pubescent, ovate to orbicular, apically acuminate to rounded, basally cuneate to rounded, 2-25 cm. long, 2-9 cm. broad; petioles 2-25 mm. long. Inflorescences of terminal and axillary pedunculate spikes, 3-40 cm. long, 6-12 mm. broad, the flowers deflexed. Flowers perfect; bracts and bracteoles subequal, 2-3.5 mm. long, ovate, spinescent, the tips rarely arcuate but not uncinate; sepals 4-5. greenish white, subequal, hypogy- nous, obscurely nerved, 4-7 mm. long; stamens 5, united below into a short tube; pseudostaminodia lacerate, exceeded by the 4-locellate anthers; ovary obovoid; style 1, filiform, at anthesis longer than the ovary; stigma 1, capitate. Fruit an indehiscent turbinate utricle; seeds cochleate-orbiculate, reddish brown, about 1 mm. broad.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 19
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    A common weed of waste places, very variable, much-branched, 1–6 ft. high, sometimes subscandent, sometimes woody

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers green or pinkish.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Seed filling the capsule, oblong-ovoid, smooth.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5, the filaments 1.5–4.5(6) mm. long, alternating with subquadrate pseudostaminodes. Typically the apex of the latter curves slightly inwards as a narrow, crenate or entire, often very delicate flap, while from the dorsal surface arises a fimbriate-ciliate scale extending across the width of the pseudostaminode; not rarely, however, this is reduced to a “stag's horn”process at the centre of the dorsal surface or a shallow, dentate rim, or even becomes small and filiform, or else subapical or apical so that the pseudostaminode appears simple (this usually in small forms of var. sicula).

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Style slender, 1–4(6) mm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Capsule oblong-ovoid, 1–3(5) mm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences at first dense, finally elongating to (5)8–34 (40) cm.; peduncles (0.6–1)1–6 (7.5) cm. long.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb (sometimes woody and somewhat suffrutescent), occasionally flowering in the first year, 0.2–2 m., stiffly erect to subscandent or straggling and more or less prostrate, simple to much-branched, stems stout to very weak, distinctly to obscurely 4-angled, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to densely tomentose, the nodes more or less shrunken when dry.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate, acute or acuminate to almost circular and very obtuse, gradually or abruptly narrowed below, (2)5–22 (28) × 1.3–8 (10) cm., indumentum varying from subglabrous on both surfaces through subglabrous above and densely appressed-canescent below to more or less densely tomentose on both surfaces; petioles of main stem leaves 3–25( 30) mm., shortening above and below.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Perennial herb (sometimes woody and somewhat suffrutescent), occasionally flowering in the first year, 0.2–2 m., stiffly erect to subscandent or straggling and ± prostrate, simple to much branched, stems stout to very weak, distinctly to obscurely 4-angled, striate or sulcate, subglabrous to densely tomentose, the nodes ± shrunken when dry.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Capsule oblong-ovoid, 1–3(–5) mm.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5, the filaments 1.5–4.5(–6) mm., alternating with subquadrate pseudostaminodes; typically the apex of the latter curves slightly inwards as a narrow, crenate or entire, often very delicate flap, while from the dorsal surface arises afimbriate-ciliate scale extending across the width of the pseudostaminode; not rarely, however, this is reduced to a “stag’s-horn” process at the centre of the dorsal surface or a shallow, dentate rim, or even becomes small and filiform – or else subapical or apical so that the pseudostaminode appears simple (this usually in small forms of var. sicula).

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Shortly hairy, sprawling perennial to 50 cm. Leaves elliptic, often attenuate, pale beneath. Flowers in congested terminal and axillary spikes, nodding, white.

  • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 20
    • ]. 

    Hierba erecta, 30-80 cm de altura. Tallo estriado con puntos blanquecinos, glabro a estrigoso, con tricomas pluricelulares, uniseriados, 0.5-1.2 mm de largo. Hojas pecioladas; pecíolo 0.2-1.8 cm de largo, estrigoso; lámina ovada, ampliamente obovada o elíptica, estrigosa, base cuneada, ápice agudo a mucronado, haz y envés estrigosos, venación primaria y secundaria estrigosa, axilas con aglomerados de tricomas. Inflorescencias en espigas terminales, 2-95 cm de largo, pedunculadas, verdes; pedúnculo 0.5-3.5 cm de largo; raquis viloso, con tricomas pluricelulares de 10-15 mm de largo; bráctea 1, persistente, deltoide, cóncava, membranácea, glabra, sin nervios, ápice aristado, blanca, amarilla o rosada; bractéolas 2, adaxiales, carinadas, membranáceas en el tercio basal, mayores que la mitad del perianto, glabras, imbricadas, un nervio medio con arista endurecida, blanca, amarilla o rosada; pedicelo menor a 1 mm de largo, glabro. Flores adultas péndulas, 4-7.5 mm de largo, verde amarillentas. Sépalos 5, biseriados, carinados, coriáceos, con bordes membranáceos, glabros, ápice agudo a obtuso; los 2 externos hasta 7.5 mm de largo y los 3 internos hasta 6.2 mm de largo. Estambres 5, 1.5-2 mm de largo; filamentos membranáceos, connatos hasta 0.7 mm de su longitud; anteras 0.4-0.5 mm de largo; estaminodios membranáceos, rectangulares, ca. 1.8 mm de largo, con dientes agudos en el ápice. Ovario cilíndrico, angostado hacia la base, 0.5-2 x 1 mm, ámbar; estilo 1 mm de largo; estigma penicilado. Fruto en utrículo, 1-2 mm de largo. Semilla 1, café oscura o negra, cilíndrica, 1-2.2 mm de largo; cotiledones grandes, carnosos y duros.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Colombia
    • Bracteoles 1.5–4.5(6) mm., the basal wings one third to one quarter the length of the spine and more or less adnate to it (sometimes free above or tearing free), typically tapering off above but not rarely rounded or truncate.

    • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Perianth whitish or pale green to red or purple, segments 5, 3–7 (10) mm. long, the outer pair longest, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, very acute, with a distinct midrib and 2 obscure to distinct lateral nerves, narrowly or moderately pale-margined.

    • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Bracts lanceolate or narrowly deltoid-lanceolate, pale or brownish-membranous, 1.75–5(6) mm. long, glabrous.

    • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Leaves elliptic, oblong or ovate, acute or acuminate to almost round and very obtuse, gradually or abruptly narrowed below, (2–)5–22(–28) × 1.3–8(–10) cm., indumentum varying from subglabrous through subglabrous above and densely appressed-canescent below to ± densely tomentose on both surfaces; petioles of main stem leaves 3–25(–30) mm., shortening above and below.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Bracteoles 1.5–4.5(–6) mm., the basal wings 1/3–1/4 the length of the spine and ± adnate to it (sometimes free above or tearing free), typically tapering off above but not rarely rounded or truncate.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Perianth whitish or pale green to red or purple; segments 5, 3–7(–10) mm., the outer pair longest, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, very acute, with a distinct midrib and 2 obscure to distinct lateral nerves, narrowly or moderately pale-margined.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Inflorescences at first dense, finally elongating to (5–)8–34(–40) cm., peduncles (0.6–)1–6(–7.5) cm.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Bracts lanceolate or narrowly deltoid-lanceolate, pale or brownish-membranous, 1.75–5(–6) mm., glabrous.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Seed filling the capsule, oblong-ovoid, smooth.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Style slender, 1–4(–6) mm.

    • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Forests and bush.

    • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 20
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      A rather ubiquitous pantropical weed, this species is perhaps adventive in America.

    • Provided by: [J].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 19
      • ]. 

      Knysna to tropical Africa and Asia.

    • Provided by: [G].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 20
      • ]. 

      Distribution Map

       
      • Native distribution
      Found in
      • Southern America Brazil Acre
      • Amazonas
      • Bahia
      • Espirito Santo
      • Minas Gerais
      • Rio de Janeiro
      • Mato Grosso
      • Mato Grosso do Sul

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      abrojo mozote
      mozotillo rabo de chanco
      zacpaiche zorillo blanco
      pije de gato chile de perro
      cola de armado penegato

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Amaranthaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
      http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
      Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
      • D Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • E The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • F
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • G All Rights Reserved
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • I
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • J Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora de Colombia
      http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      Betancur B. Julio., Aguirre-C. Jaime., Amat-G. Germán. (eds.) (2018–): Flora de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Published in http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/floradecolombia
      • K Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • L Flora of North America Association
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • M Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).