Pinus balfouriana Balf.
  • Bot. Exped. Oregon
  • Foxtail pine

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Pinus balfouriana Balf. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 29 Nov 2021'

General Information

Trees to 22m; trunk to 2.6m diam., erect or leaning; crown broadly conic to irregular. Bark gray to salmon or cinnamon, platy or irregularly deep-fissured or with irregular blocky plates. Branches contorted, ascending to descending; twigs red-brown, aging gray to drab yellow-gray, glabrous or puberulent, young branches resembling long bottlebrushes because of persistent leaves. Buds ovoid-acuminate, red-brown, 0.8--1cm, resinous. Leaves 5 per fascicle, upcurved, persisting 10--30 years, 1.5--4cm ´ 1--1.4mm, mostly connivent, deep blue- to deep yellow-green, abaxial surface without median groove but usually with 2 subepidermal but evident resin bands, adaxial surfaces conspicuously whitened by stomates, margins mostly entire to blunt, apex broadly acute to acuminate; sheath 0.5--1cm, soon forming rosette, shed early. Pollen cones ellipsoid, ca. 6--10mm, red. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, lance-cylindric with conic base before opening, broadly lance-ovoid or ovoid to cylindric or ovoid-cylindric when open, 6--9(--11)cm, purple, aging red-brown, nearly sessile; apophyses much thickened, rounded, larger toward cone base; umbo central, usually depressed; prickle absent or weak, to 1mm, resin exudates amber. Seeds ellipsoid to narrowly obovoid; body to 10mm, pale brown, mottled with deep red; wing 10--12mm. 2 n =24.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 



    Mastrogiussepe, R.J. and J.D. Mastrogiuseppe. 1980. A study of Pinus balfouriana Grev. & Balf. (Pinaceae). Syst. Bot. 5: 86--104.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    Foxtail pine

     Information From

    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Global Tree Search
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • C Botanic Gardens Conservation International
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • D See IUCN Terms and conditions of use
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).