Symphonia globulifera L.f.
  • Suppl. Pl.
  • Guanandi


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Symphonia globulifera L.f. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000438147. Accessed on: 26 Jan 2020'

General Information

Por Barry E. Hammel

Symphonia globulifera L. f., Suppl. Pl. 302. 1782.

Arboles o arbustos 5–30 m, látex amarillo; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas elípticas a oblongo-elípticas, 6.5–14 cm de largo y 1.5–4 cm de ancho, ápice agudo, atenuado a acuminado, base aguda, nervio principal inconspicuo en la haz, prominente en el envés, nervios laterales inconspicuos en el material fresco y ligeramente prominentes en el envés cuando secos, 5–7 por cm; pecíolos 0.5–1 cm de largo, aplanados y 2-acostillados adaxialmente. Inflorescencias racimos fasciculados, axilares o terminales; sépalos 5, imbricados; pétalos 5, contortos, rojo brillantes o rosados y blancos; columna estaminal amarilla; estilo alargado, apicalmente 4–5-lobado. Fruto una baya ovoide, ca 2.5 cm de largo, paredes delgadas a coriáceas, cafés; semillas 1 ó 2, de color rojo vino.

Abundante en bosques húmedos, bosques pantanosos y bosques perennifolios, zona atlántica; 0–500 m; fl feb–may, fr 1–2 meses después de la floración; Sandino 4062, Stevens 21718; América tropical, Madagascar, Africa tropical. El material estéril es fácil de distinguir de otras Clusiáceas por las 2 pequeñas glándulas negras, estipuliformes, interpeciolares. Los árboles de dosel y de sotobosque, aquí incluidos, tal vez representan 2 taxones distintos. Los individuos más pequeños tienen hojas más largas, más delgadas, dientes laterales más distantes y flores rosadas en vez de rojas. Un género con 2 especies en América tropical y ca 15 especies en Madagascar y Africa. "Leche María".

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    Tree to 30 m tall; sometimes stilt-rooted; sap yellow. Leaves oblong to lan- ceolate, often slightly wider above the middle, apically acuminate, basally obtuse or acute, 4-6 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, the costa impressed above, elevated be- neath, the lateral nerves numerous, straight, parallel, slightly ascending, often abruptly forking near the margin to form an inconspicuous continuous submar- ginal vein, chartaceous, often slightly grayish; petiole short but distinct, 3-5 mm long. Inflorescence condensed and subumbellate, cymose peduncle mostly ob- solete but sometimes 2-3 cm long; bracts wanting; bracteoles obsolete; pedicels straight, ca. 1 cm long. Flowers depressed globose, pink or red, ca. 1.5 cm across; sepals 5, quincuncial, rotund, broader than long, ca. 5 mm long; petals rotund, ca. 10 mm long, imbricate, contorted; filaments exserted, forming a narrowly turbinoid column around the ovary, apically splitting into 5, white strap-like ele- ments, the anthers 3 per segment, linear, abaxial on the segments, dehiscing longitudinally by lateral slits; ovary 5-locular, turbinoid, produced into the style, the style apically divided into 5 porrect linear lobes which alternate with the anther connectives, white, stigmas minute, distal on the style lobes and directed downwards, minute. Fruit subglobose, 2-4 cm long, surmounted by the persistent style and branches, leathery, brownish or yellowish; seeds 1(-3), red, ellipsoid to subglobose.

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    Arbusto o árbol, 1.3–40 m, terrestre o (rara vez) epifítico, hermafrodita, a menudo con gambas pequeñas (hasta ca. 0.6 m) o raíces zancudas, las ramitas con 1 ó 2 pequeñas glándulas estipuliformes, interpeciolares, en cada nudo; yemas glabras; resina amarilla. Hojas con pecíolo 0.5–1 cm, acanalado en el haz pero sin fosa adaxial; lámina 5.5–14 X 1.5–4 cm, elíptica a oblongo-elíptica, subcoriácea, finamente revoluta en el margen, glabra en ambas caras, los nervios secundarios inconspicuos en material fresco y ligeramente prominentes en el envés en material seco, 1–2.5 mm distantes, que se unen en un nervio submarginal (0.2–0.5 mm del margen), los nervios terciarios evidentes, las marcas de resina no visibles. Infls. terminales, a menudo en ramitas laterales, cimoso-subumbeladas. Botones florales ± globosos, glabros. Fls. de olor agradable, sin bractéolas, con un disco extra-estaminal (posiblemente estaminodial); perianto con los verticilos bien diferenciados; sépalos 5, separados, rojos, 2–3 mm; pétalos 5, contortos, rojo brillante o rosados y blancos, 7–10 mm, que forman un globo (“pseudotubo”; ver Bittrich & Amaral, 1996) ± comprimido en la antesis, membranáceos; estambres 15, los filamentos connatos basalmente en una columna amarilla, más larga que las anteras, distalmente partida en 5 grupos (fascículos); anteras linear-oblongas, longitudinalmente dehiscentes; ovario 4 ó 5 locular; óvulos 1 ó 2 por lóculo; estilo alargado, distal y radialmente 4 ó 5- ramificado; estigmas poriformes. Frs. abayados, café, ca. 2.5 cm, ovoides, las paredes ± coriáceas; semillas 1 ó 2, rojo vino, ca. 20 mm, ovoides, sin arilo.

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    Morphology

    A tree, up to 80 ft. high; bole straight with a crown of short horizontal branches

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    Flowers pedicellate; pedicels 12–25 mm. long, quadrangular above.

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    Sepals unequal or subequal, ovate to orbicular, rounded at the apex, with margin entire or ciliolate.

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    Petals 7–15 mm. long, 5–6 times as long as the sepals, carnose, ± orbicular, scarlet or bright- or yellowish-red, deciduous.

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    Androecium of 2 whorls, the outer sterile, forming a ± pentagonal cupule 1·5–4 mm. high, with entire or undulate margins; the inner comprising 5 stamen-fascicles each with 3–4 completely united stamens, the fascicles united to form a membranous tube round the ovary, free above, spreading at anthesis; anthers 2–5 mm. long, linear, parallel, with connectives prolonged to form a short acute or bifid appendage.

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    Berry ovoid or globose, 15–35 mm. in diam., verrucose, red turning brown, 1–2 (rarely 3)-seeded.

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    Ovary ovoid; loculi (1) 2–4-ovulate; styles 1–2 times as long as the ovary, thick, fused together for c. 2/3 of their length, then spreading or recurved; stigmas minute.

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    Seeds c. 15–20 mm. long, ± flattened.

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    Flower-buds 6–12 mm. in diam., globose.

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    Inflorescences corymbose or subumbellate many-flowered cymes, terminating short lateral branches.

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    Leaves coriaceous, petiolate; lamina 5–12 × 1·3–4 cm., oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate, acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, dark glossy green above, paler below, with numerous closely parallel lateral veins prominent below forming a wide angle with the midrib and branching and anastomosing towards the margin, and with dark glandular streaks or lines sometimes visible on the lower surface; petiole 5–15 (20) mm. long, channelled above.

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    Branches longitudinally grooved and slightly flattened when young, eventually cylindric.

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    Tree 15–30 m. (rarely to 36 m.) high, with straight bole and a crown of short horizontal branches; bark smooth, dark or reddish-brown.

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    Sepals round, reniform or ovate, 2–5 mm. long, 2.5–7 mm. wide.

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    Petals waxy, crimson or scarlet, round, 0.7–1.7 cm. long, 1.3–2 cm. wide, slightly spreading.

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    Leaf-blades oblong, elliptic, oblanceolate, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 5–12.5 cm. long, 1–5 cm. wide, obtusely acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, mostly very dark glossy green, ± coriaceous; petiole 0.5–2 cm. long, finely transversely wrinkled.

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    Inflorescences corymbose or subumbellate many-flowered cymes terminating short lateral branches; pedicels 0.4–2.6 cm. long, lengthening in fruit.

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    Ovary ovoid, the loculi with (l–)2–4 ovules; styles (3–)5–7 mm. long, fused for 2–3 mm. then spreading or recurved.

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    Fruit green or crimson, then brown, broadly ellipsoid or globose, 1.5–4.5 cm. long, 2–3.5 cm. across, with copious yellow fluid turning brown on exposure to the air, l–2(–3)-seeded, finely warty, crowned with reflexed stigma-lobes.

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    Disc 1.5–4 mm. tall, with entire or undulate border, ± pentagonal.

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    Staminal tube 3.5–10 mm. tall, ± persistent after the petals fall; anthers linear, 3–4 to each bundle, 2–5 mm. long, the connectives prolonged to form a short acute or bifid appendage.

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    Seed ovoid, compressed, 1.5–2 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. wide, with a thin testa marbled by lactiferous ducts; inner integument fibrous.

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    Fig. 2.

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    Glabrous tree (7.5–)15–25(–40) m. tall, with a straight cylindrical bole clear for 4.5–21 m., often with stilt roots surrounded by pneumatophores (in the New World); bark buff or greenish yellow or grey-brown, smooth or with vertical fissures and lenticels arranged in vertical rows; the wood when cut exudes a little yellow or orange sticky resin; branches horizontal, forming a rounded crown.

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    Habit

    Tree

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    Ecology

    Common in muddy forest-swamps and by streams.

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    Distribution

    widespread in tropical America, Africa and Mada- gascar

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    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Sergipe
    • Espirito Santo
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • Mato Grosso

      Bibliography

     Information From

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    Flora de Panama
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    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
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    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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