Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.
  • Gard. Dict. ed. 8
  • Indian-fig pricklypear, mission pricklypear, tuna cactus


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000385761. Accessed on: 01 Apr 2020'

General Information

Shrubs erect or small trees, 1.5-5 m tall. Trunk (when present) terete. Joints dull green or grayish green, broadly to narrowly obovate, elliptic, or oblong, (20-)25-60 × 7-20 cm, thick. Areoles usually narrowly elliptic, 2-4.5 mm. Spines usually absent, sometimes 1-6 per areole, spreading or deflexed, bristlelike or acicular, 0.3-3.2 cm, basally flattened; glochids yellow, early deciduous. Leaves conic, 3-4 mm, early deciduous. Flowers 5-8 cm in diam. Sepaloids yellow with reddish or green center, broadly ovate or obovate, to 2 cm, margin entire or denticulate, apex truncate or acute, mucronate. Petaloids spreading, yellow to orange, obovate to oblong-obovate, 2.5-3.5 × 1.5-2 cm, margin entire or erose, apex rounded, truncate, mucronate, or emarginate. Filaments yellowish, ca. 6 mm; anthers yellow, 1.2-1.5 mm. Style greenish, ca. 15 mm; stigmas (6-)7-10, cream, 3-4 mm. Fruit yellow, orange, or purplish, 5-10 × 4-9 cm, umbilicus low and concave. Seeds gray or tan, elliptic-orbicular, 4-5 × 3.5-4 mm. Fl. May-Jun.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Trees, 3-6 m; trunk to 30-45 cm diam. Stem segments green, broadly oblong to ovate to narrowly elliptic, (20-)4-60 × 2-3+ cm, low tuberculate; areoles 7-11 per diagonal row across midstem segment, rhombic to subcircular, 2-4(-5) mm diam.; wool brown. Spines 1-6 per areole, absent or very highly reduced, or in marginal to nearly all areoles, erect to spreading, whitish, tan, or brown, setaceous only or setaceous and subulate, straight to slightly curved, basally angular-flattened, 1-10(-40) mm; 0-2 small bristlelike deflexed spines to 5 mm. Glochids along adaxial margin of areole and small, inconspicuous tuft, yellowish, aging brown, less than 2 mm. Flowers: inner tepals yellow to orange throughout, 25-50 mm; filaments and anthers yellow; style bright red; stigma lobes yellow. Fruits yellow to orange to purple, 50-100 × 40-90 mm, fleshy to ± juicy, glabrous, usually spineless; areoles 45-60, evenly distributed on fruit. Seeds pale tan, subcircular, 4-5 mm diam., warped; girdle protruding to 1 mm. 2n = 88.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8, Opuntia no. 2. 1768; Cactus ficus-indica L.; O. megacantha Salm-Dyck.

    Arborescentes, 3–5 m de alto, tronco distinto; articulaciones 30–60 cm de largo y 20–40 cm de ancho; aréolas sin espinas o con 1–6 espinas de 1–3 cm de largo, blancas. Flores 6–7 cm de largo y 5–7 cm de diámetro; partes sepaloides del perianto 10–20 mm de largo y 15–20 mm de ancho, amarillas con una raya verde o rojiza en la mitad; partes petaloides del perianto rotáceas, 2.5–3 cm de largo y 1.5–2 cm de ancho, amarillas a amarillo-anaranjadas; estilo 1.5 cm de largo, verdoso, lobos del estigma 8–10. Frutos 5–10 cm de largo y 4–9 cm de diámetro, carnosos, blanco-verdosos a amarillos, café-amarillentos o morado-rojizos, dependiendo de la variedad; semillas 5 mm de largo y 3 mm de ancho, blanquecinas.

    Comúnmente cultivada y escapada de cultivo en todas las áreas secas del país; fl y fr may–ago; Vincelli 701; sur de los Estados Unidos a Argentina y Chile. No se conoce la distribución nativa de esta especie, si bien es muy posible que sea de México. Cultivada desde tiempos antiguos por sus frutos comestibles, hoy en día se encuentra ampliamente naturalizada y escapada de cultivo en las áreas cálidas del mundo. "Tuna".

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Morphology

    Shrubby or arborescent, up to 4(–5) m. tall, often with a cylindrical trunk.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Joints elliptic to narrowly obovate, flattened, often 30–40 cm. long, 15–20 cm. broad, 1–1.5 cm. thick, greyish-green; glochids yellow, deciduous; spines usually none, sometimes 1 or more, up to 1.5 cm. long, bristle-like.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves subulate, 3–4 mm. long, early deciduous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Flowers 5–8 cm. in diameter; perianth spreading, yellow or orange, longer than the style and stamens.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Ovary cylindrical, 3.5–5 cm. long, with many areoles, the upper bearing bristles up to 1.5 cm. long.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit ellipsoidal or obovoid, 5–9 cm. long, 3–6 cm. in diameter, variable in colour, with edible pulp.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Shrub or tree, up to 5 m high. Joints flattened, narrowly elliptic to ovate, 60-120 mm broad, fairly thick, glaucous, with straight margins; areoles small, ± 5 mm in diameter, with 3-6 greyish white spines, up to 30 mm long, or absent in older plants. Fruit ovoid to barrel-shaped, reddish or yellowish. Flowers yellow or orange.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Shrubs or trees up to 5 m tall, forming sturdy trunks with age. Joints flattened, narrowly elliptic to ovate, varying in size, 30-60 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, attenuate below, often acute above, fairly thick, glaucous-green; areoles small to large, and then raised and woolly, with 3-6 radiating, unequally long, greyish white spines up to 3(-10) cm long, straight or occasionally slightly curved, or spineless (in older plants and some cultivars). Leaves, if developed, minute, subulate, early deciduous. Flowers about 7 cm long; hypanthium broadly cylindrical, contracted below, with numerous raised areoles spirally arranged, densely woolly and filled with glochidia, occasionally also bearing small spines and minute leaves; petaloid segments yellow or orange. Fruit ellipsoid, c. 7 cm long, reddish, succulent, edible; seeds about 5 mm long.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Shrub or tree, up to 5 m high; mostly with a trunk up to 1 m in diameter; cladodes obovate to oblong 200-600 mm long, much longer than broad, dull green or blue-green, base attenuate, fairly thick, glaucous, with straight margins; areoles small, ± 5 mm in diameter. Spines 3-6, greyish white, up to 30 mm long, or absent in older plants. Leaves caducous. Flowers: 60-70 mm long; floral tube with many areoles, with a few long glochidia in addition to many short glochidia; perianth segments yellow or orange; Oct.-Dec. Fruit ellipsoid or obovoid, 5-10 mm long, greenish to orange or red in different cultivars, with pale pulp.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Habitat

    Escaped from cultivation, becoming a weed.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
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    Vredefort Dome Savanna; Kalahari Deciduous Acacia-wooded Grassland; Dry Grassland; Mesic Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland; Zastron Moist Grassland. Dry, rocky places.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Distribution

    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Benson believes the species to be a native of Mexico. It was introduced to southern Europe, Africa and India. It is the most common and widespread species in South Africa.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Native to South America.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Indian-fig pricklypear, mission pricklypear, tuna cactus
    Palmatória, Palma, Palma-gigante, Figo-da-índia, Figo-da-Espanha, Jamaracá, JurumbebaPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Cactaceae
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    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
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    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
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    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
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    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
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    • F Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
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    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
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    • J All Rights Reserved
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • K See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use