Myriophyllum spicatum L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Líonánach


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Myriophyllum spicatum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000373566. Accessed on: 25 Nov 2020'

General Information

Plants mostly monoecious, rarely with bisexual flowers. Stem much branched, 100-250 cm, densely leafy in upper part, sparsely light green warty; internodes ca. 3 cm. Submerged leaves 4- or 5-whorled, pectinate, broadly ovate in outline, 3-3.5 × 1-2.5 cm; segments in 13-16 pairs, filiform, 1-1.5 cm. Inflorescence a terminal spike of 4-whorled flowers, 6-10 cm; bracts reniform or suborbicular, shorter than flowers, broader than long. Male flowers: bracteoles rhombic to elongate, margin entire; calyx broadly campanulate, 0.5-1 mm, 4-parted nearly to middle; petals 4(or 5), pale pink, elliptic, 1.5-2.5 mm; stamens 8, without androphore. Female flowers: bracteoles pectinate, lanceolate in outline; calyx tubiform, 0.7-1 mm, margin shortly lobed; petals absent or minute and caducous. Fruit 4-loculed, subcylindric, ca. 2 × 1.5 mm; mericarps abaxially rounded, smooth or sparsely verrucose along margins. Fl. and fr. Apr-Sep.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    "Much like no. 9 [Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom.]; stem thickened below the infl to almost double its width farther down, curved to lie parallel with the water-surface, usually branching freely near the water-level; shoot-tip more tassel-like, with internodes mostly 1–3 cm; no turions; lvs with more numerous (mostly 12–20) long, straight segments per side; lower bracts often pectinate and often somewhat exceeding the frs; mericarps 2–3 mm; 2n=42. European sp., widely intr. in N. Amer., tolerant of nitrogenous pollution."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Submerged perennial. Stems thick, 30-150 cm long, branched, glabrous, rhizome rooting. Leaves 10-25 mm long, pectinate, with 20-26 segments. Spikes terminal, 50-70 mm long, with flowers in whorls of 4 in the axils of bracts; the upper flowers male, the lower female. Bracts 1.5-3 mm long, the upper obovate, entire; the lower: pinnatifid or with a deeply cleft margin. Male flower : sepals 0.5-1 mm long, triangular, obtuse; petals 2 mm long, oblong, cucullate, reddish. Stamens 8, filaments short; anthers 1-1.5 mm long. Female flower: calyx c. 1.5 mm long; petals minute. Ovary c. 1.5 mm long, subglobose; styles short, stigmas plumose. Fruit 2 mm long, subglobose.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of Pakistan
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Petals 4, c. 3 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Stigmas 4, spreading, papillose.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens (?2)8; anthers c. 2 mm. long; filaments c. 2 mm. long.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit subglobose, c. 3 mm. in diameter, 4-sulcate, usually with 8 longitudinal verrucose ridges or rarely smooth.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Aquatic herb, usually submerged, occasionally creeping on to muddy banks; rhizome rooted; stems up to 2 m. long, usually branched.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Flowers unisexual or bisexual in terminal emergent spikes up to 10 cm. long; spikes interrupted with whorls c. 1·5 cm. apart along a 4-angled rhachis; whorls of 4 obovate entire bracts (except the lowest which are pinnatisect or dentate); upper bracts shorter than the flowers; bracteoles broadly ovate to triangular, entire.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Submerged leaves pinnatisect, in alternating whorls of (3)4(5), glabrous, ± equalling intemodes; leaf-segments 7–11 on each side, filiform, usually obtuse at apex; stipule-like outgrowths absent or inconspicuous.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ähnlich wie M. verticillatum, aber untergetauchte Blattquirle meist mit nur 4 Blättern, Blüten meist zu 4 quirlständig, Tragblätter wenigstens im oberen Teil des Blütenstandes ungeteilt und kürzer als die Blüten.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Monoecious or polygamous, rhizomatous, submerged, aquatic perennial to 2 m. Leaves whorled, feathery pinnatisect, lobes filiform. Flowers in terminal, emergent spikes, yellow.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Aquatic herb, usually submerged, occasionally creeping on to muddy banks; rhizome rooted; stems up to 2 m long, usually branched. Submerged leaves pinnatisect, in alternating whorls of (3)4(5), glabrous, ± equalling internodes; leaf-segments 7-11 on each side, filiform, usually obtuse at apex; stipule-like outgrowths absent or inconspicuous. Flowers unisexual or bisexual in terminal emergent spikes up to 10 cm long; spikes interrupted with whorls c. 1.5 cm apart along a 4-angled rhachis; whorls of 4 obovate entire bracts (except the lowest which are pinnatisect or dentate); upper bracts shorter than the flowers; bracteoles broadly ovate to triangular, entire. Petals 4, c. 3 mm long. Stamens (?2)8; anthers c. 2 mm long; filaments c. 2 mm long. Stigmas 4, spreading, papillose. Fruit subglobose, c. 3 mm in diameter, 4-sulcate, usually with 8 longitudinal verrucose ridges or rarely smooth.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Submerged hydrophyte. Leaf segments finely divided, not glandular, apex not mucronulate, stipule-like outgrowths absent or inconspicuous. Flowers: in terminal emergent spikes, 50100 mm long; corolla cream-coloured; Mar.-May. Fruit a nut, ± 3 mm in diameter.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Ecology

    6–9. Stehende oder langsam fliessende Gewässer, kollin-subalpin. CH.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Streams and pools.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Still, shallow waters near banks of rivers, lakes and ponds.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Vredefort Dome Savanna. Still, shallow waters near banks of rivers, lakes and ponds.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Velddrif to Montagu, and throughout Africa and Europe.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Almost ubiquitous in the northern hemisphere; frequent in northern and southern Africa but rare in the tropics (Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Philippines).

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Native to North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa.

  • Provided by: [A].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland

    Nationally Preferred Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    LíonánachIrishIE
    Spiked water-milfoilEnglishIE

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Millifeglia spiadaRaeto-RomanceCH
    Ähriges TausendblattGermanCH
    Millefoglio d'acqua comuneItalianCH
    Myriophylle en épiFrenchCH

      Bibliography

     Information From

    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • A All Rights Reserved
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    http://www.flora-helvetica.ch
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Flora of Pakistan
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
    Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2020.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Haloragaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Irish Vernacular Names
    https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/research-staff/article/380/wyse-jackson-peter-s.aspx
    • H All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    https://www.iucnredlist.org/
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • J See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    https://www.iucn.org/
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • K All Rights Reserved