Acorus calamus L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • Eğirotu


This taxon is accepted by Acoraceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Rhizome stout, 4-10(-20) × (0.8-)1-1.5(-3) cm, aromatic; roots at lower side of rhizome. Leaves several, mid-green, often reddish at base, ensiform, (60-)70-100(-150) × (0.7-)1-2(-2.5) cm (mostly 1-1.5 cm wide), apex acuminate; midrib conspicuous on both sides. Peduncle compressed triangular, (15-)40-50 cm. Spathe mid-green, leaflike, 30-50 cm, acute. Spadix straight or slightly curved, erect, oblique, narrowly conic to subcylindric (tapering toward apex), 4.5-6.5(-8) × 0.6-1.2(-1.5) cm, densely flowered. Flowers yellowish green, 1.8-2 mm in diam. seen from above; tepals oblong, 2.5-3 × 1-1.2(-1.4) mm, keeled, membranous, apex triangular hooded; filaments oblong, flat, 2-2.5 × 0.3-0.5 mm, anthers cream-colored, 0.4-0.5 mm in diam.; pollen grains ca. 20 µm, exine shallowly and remotely foveolate; gynoecium obconic-cylindric, 2.5-3.5(-4) × (0.8-)1-2.3 mm, with conic, spongy apex and stigma very small. Infructescence 1.5-2 cm in diam., straw-brown at maturity, berries densely arranged. Berry oblong-obovoid, 1- to few seeded, (3.5-)4-4.5 × 2-3(-3.5) mm. Seed oblong-ellipsoid to ovoid, 2.5-3(-4) × 1-1.2(-1.8) mm, without bristles; testa light brown, subsmooth and slightly foveolate. Fl. (Feb-)Apr-Sep. 2n = 24, 36, 48.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves basally white with pink or red, otherwise bright green; single midvein (secondary midrib) prominently raised above leaf surface, usually somewhat off-center, other veins barely or not raised; cross section rhomboid. Vegetative leaves to 1.75 m; sheathing base (proximal part of leaf) 22.1--66.5(--73.3) cm; distal part of leaf 31.9--95.8(--117.6) ´ 0.5--2 cm, 1.4--1.8 times longer than proximal part of leaf, margins sometimes undulate or crisped. Sympodial leaf (29.9--)34.7--159.1(--183.9) cm, usually shorter than to nearly equal to vegetative leaves; sheathing base 16.1--76.4(--100.1) cm; distal part of leaf 13.5--86.2(--101.2) ´ 0.4--1.9 cm. Spadix (3.8--)4.9--8.9 cm ´ 5.3--10.8 mm at anthesis, post-anthesis spadix 5.5--8.7 cm ´ 6--12.6 mm. Flowers 3--4 mm; pollen grains not staining in aniline blue. Fruits not produced in North America. 2n = 36.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    "Sweetly aromatic; lvs crowded at the base, erect, to 2 m, 8–25 mm wide; scape resembling the lvs, prolonged into an erect green spathe 2–6 dm; spadix 5–10 cm, 1 cm thick at anthesis, 2 cm at maturity, covered with yellowish-brown fls; fr 4–5 × 2 mm; 2n=18, 24, 36, 48. Swamps and shallow water; irregularly circumboreal, in Amer. from N.S. and Que. to Minn., Alta., and e. Wash., s. to Fla., Tex., and Colo. Spring and early summer. (A. americanus)"

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Perennial herb. Strongly pungent aromatic oils present in all parts of plant. Leaves sword-shaped, 0.8-2.0 m long. Spathe leaf-shaped and green like spadix. Spadix appears lateral, green.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Dallanmış, kalın, rizomlara sahip bitkiler. Rizomlar 6-21 x 1-4,5 cm, uzun silindirimsi ilâ dar konimsi-silindirimsi, kahverengi, ıtırlı. Yapraklar 22-130 x 0,4-1,2 cm, distih, kılıcına, kılıçsı, keskin kenarlı, belirgin damarlı, genellikle tabanda kırmızımsı, ıtırlı. Çiçekdurumu sapı basık üçyüzlü, yaprak benzeri, 14-115 x 0,4-1,2 cm. Sıpata 28-82 x 0,7-1 cm, dik duruşlu, dökülmez, yapraklara benzer. Koçan 3,5-7,5 × 0,7-1,2 cm düz veya kıvrık, yukarı yönlü dar açılı, dar koniksi ilâ silindirik; ucu küt, yoğun çiçekli. Çiçekler erselik, bıraktesiz, sarımsı-yeşil ilâ hafifçe kahverengi. Tepal 6 adet, dikdörtgensi, 1,5-2,5 x 1-1,2 mm. Erkek organlar 6 adet; filâmentler 1,8-2,4 x 0,4-0,6 mm, şeritsi; anterler kırem ilâ kirli beyaz, 0,3-0,4 mm. Ginokeum 2-3,2 x 1,2-1,5 mm, terskonik ilâ dikdörtgensi, açık ilâ koyu yeşil; sitigma çok küçük, sapsız.

  • Provided by: [E].Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
    • Perennial herb, up to 2 m high. Leaves distichous; blade linear to sword-shaped, 0.8-2.0 m long, ± 10 mm wide, margins undulate. Flowers: densely congested on a lateral spadix, up to 90 mm long; spathe leaf-shaped, green like spadix; perianth 3-4 mm long, yellowish green; Feb., Mar.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Habitat

      Shallow, slow-flowing or stagnant water adjoining streambank edges, swamp areas.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Vredefort Dome Savanna. Wet swampy areas, disturbed streambanks, perennial shallow, slow-flowing or stagnant water.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Native to Europe and Asia.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 4
      • ]. 

      Native to Asia.

    • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCE

      Motley, T. J. 1994. The ethnobotany of sweet flag, Acorus calamus (Araceae). Econ. Bot. 48: 397--412.

    • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 2
      • ]. 

      National Preferred Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      EğirotuTurkishTR

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Sweet-flag, calamus

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Acoraceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      e-Flora of South Africa
      e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
      • B All Rights Reserved
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Flora of North America Association
      Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey)
      http://www.turkiyeflorasi.org.tr
      Güner, A., Kandemir, A., Menemen, Y., Yıldırım, H., Aslan, S., Ekşi, G., Güner, I. ve Çimen, A.Ö. (edlr.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Florası, Cilt 2. ANG Vakfı Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları. İstanbul.
      • E Resimli Türkiye Florası (the Illustrated Flora of Turkey).
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
      https://www.iucnredlist.org/
      IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
      • H See IUCN Terms and conditions of use http://www.iucnredlist.org/info/terms-of-use
      International Union for Conservation of Nature
      https://www.iucn.org/
      IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
      • I All Rights Reserved