Bixa orellana L.
  • Sp. Pl.
  • urucum


This taxon is accepted by Bixaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Shrubs or small trees, evergreen, 2-5(-10) m tall. Branches brown, densely red-brown glandular hairy. Petiole erect, 2.5-5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade abaxially pale green, with resinlike gland dots, adaxially deep green, cordate-ovate or triangular-ovate, (5-)10-25 × (3.3-)5-13(-16.5) cm, palmately 5-veined, glabrous, base rounded or subtruncate, sometimes slightly cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Panicles robust, often flat-topped, 5-10 cm, densely red-brown scaly and glandular hairy; bracts caducous, leaving scalelike scars. Flowers 4-5 cm in diam.; pedicel 4-12 mm. Sepals obovate, 8-10 × ca. 7 mm, densely red-brown scaly, with glands at base. Petals bright pink, mauve, or white with pale red veins, obovate, (1-)1.5-3 × 0.8-2 cm. Stamens many; anthers yellow, apically dehiscent. Capsule subglobose or ovoid, slightly laterally compressed, (1.4-)2-4.5 cm, usually densely purple-brown spiny, rarely smooth; spines 1-2 cm. Seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4-5 mm.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Bixa orellana L., Sp. Pl. 512. 1753; B. upatensis Ram. Goyena.

    Arboles o arbustos, 2–10 m de alto. Hojas enteras, ovado-triangulares, agudas a acuminadas, glabras o densamente lepidotas en el envés. Panículas terminales, flores actinomorfas, 4–7 cm de ancho; pétalos obovados, emarginados, rosados o blancos; ovario 1-locular, con 2 placentas parietales. Cápsula erecta, muy variable en tamaño y forma, oblongo ovoide a globosa o reniforme, 1.5–4.5 cm de largo, aguda o acuminada en el ápice, densa a escasamente cubierta de espinas largas o cortas, a veces casi lisa; semillas obovoide-angulares, ca 5 mm de largo, con densas papilas rojo-anaranjadas.

    Común en bosques secos a húmedos, bosques de galería y pastizales, ampliamente cultivada en todo el país y escapada de cultivo; 0–1200 m; fl oct–dic, fr dic–jul; Araquistain 2946, Sandino 3772; nativa de América tropical, en la actualidad distribuida en todos los trópicos. La variación de esta especie aún no ha sido evaluada por completo, esporádicamente se encuentran formas con cápsulas sin espinas que pueden ser clasificadas como B. orellana var. leiocarpa (Kuntze) Standl. & L.O. Williams y aquellas con flores y cápsulas más pequeñas y menos semillas como la variedad putativamente primitiva, B. orellana var. urucurana (Willd.) Kuntze ex Pilg. Bixa upatensis probablemente pertenece a la última. El género es generalmente considerado como monotípico. El tinte que se obtiene de las semillas es comercialmente importante. "Achiote".

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    triangular, infrequently oblong-ovate, the base truncate or truncate-subcordate or rounded or rounded-subcordate, the apex sometimes acute to generally gradually long-acuminate and with the acumen usually blunt and often inconspicuously mucronulate, entire-margined, 5.5-27 cm long and 3-18 cm wide, membranous to chartaceous, 5-palminerved, slightly discolor, the upper surface usually more or less shining and glabrous or sparsely lepidote especially when young and along the veins, the lower surface dull, paler, more or less densely lepidote, and with the main veins and secondary veins prominent. Panicles small to large, few- to many-flowered, the axes densely covered with minute, reddish-brown scales, the bracts and bracteoles squamiform and fugacious. Flowers with the pedicels up to 1 cm long, densely covered with minute, reddish-brown scales; sepals circular, cucullate, 7-9 mm in diam, densely lepidote outside; petals obovate, rounded at the apex, 20-33 mm long and 8-20 mm wide, white or pink; androecium ca 14-15 mm long, the fila- ments filiform, the anthers ca 1-1.5 mm long; ovary more or less globose to pyri- form, densely to sparsely bristly, the style up to 15 mm long, slightly enlarged towards the apex, glabrous. Capsules very variable in shape, size, and indumentum, oblong-ovoid to ovoid to globose to + reniform to transversely ellipsoid, more or less flat- tended or not, rounded to acute or sometimes acuminate at the apex, 1.3-4.5 cm long and 1.3-4 cm broad, brown to flaming red, densely to sparsely covered with long or sometimes short, flexible spines, sometimes nearly smooth; seeds obovoid- angular, ca 5 mm long, the testa densely reddish-orange papillate. Native to and widely distributed throughout continental tropical America; planted and naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; known locally as achote or achiote.

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    Shrub or tree, usually evergreen, 1.5-10 (15) m tall, the trunk up to 10 cm in diam, the bark lenticellate, the branchlets covered with minute, reddish-brown scales. Leaves with the petioles slender, terete, slightly enlarged at the apex, 1.8- 14 cm long, more or less densely covered with minute scales, the stipules narrowly ovate, acuminate at the apex, ca 1 cm long, fugacious; blade ovate or sometimes ovate-

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    Morphology

    An introduced shrub; sometimes subspontaneous.

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    Petals white with light red veins and oblong dots or mauve or bright pink, unequal, obovate, 1.5–3 cm. long, 0.8–2 cm. wide, obtuse to rounded.

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    Sepals purplish, ovate, concave, 8–12 mm. long, obtuse or rounded, with rust-coloured sessile scales outside.

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    Receptacles with (4–)5(–6) pale shining glands, variable in size.

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    Panicles or corymbs 8–50-flowered; pedicels 4–12 mm. long, thickened towards apex, densely covered with rusty-red peltate scales; bracts lanceolate to narrowly obovate, 4–7(–10) mm. long, soon caducous, leaving a scale-like scar.

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    Ovary ovoid or subglobose, 2.25–3 mm. wide, covered with dense red blotched bristles; style 12–15 mm. long, thickened towards the apex, glabrous.

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    Capsule variable in shape and colour, rounded with an abrupt short acuminate apex or elongate-ovate with a long acuminate apex, (l.4–)2–4.5 cm. long, (l.7–)2–4 cm. wide, sometimes with a short stipe up to 4 mm. long, densely covered with red to brown stiff bristles, variable in length (there is also a variety with smooth capsules which does not occur in Africa); endocarp detaching, membranous and shiny.

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    Filaments 8–14 mm. long; anthers violet or red to purple, 1–1.2 mm. long.

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    Seeds numerous, red-brown, obovoid-angular, 4–5 mm. long; testa studded with minute red glands; funicles 2–3 mm. long, with a disc-shaped apex.

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    Stipules ± lanceolate, 0.4–1.5 cm. long, leaving a very shallow scale-like scar with 2 sessile glands.

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    Leaves petiolate; blades ovate, 5–25 cm. long, 3.3–16.5 cm. wide, apex long acuminate, base cordate or less often truncate (very rarely obtuse), very young leaves with rust-coloured sessile scales beneath, soon becoming glabrescent or glabrous, with 5–6 pairs of lateral nerves, the second pair always arising from the base together with the first pair, prominent beneath; petiole slender, 1.2–13 cm. long, distinctly thickened at the base and apex.

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    Shrub or small tree l–9(–15) m. tall; young branches densely covered with rust-coloured peltate scales, becoming glabrescent with age.

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    Capsule narrowly ovoid, acute, densely covered with stiff, slender bristles, opening to the base by two valves.

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    Seeds c. 4 mm. long, numerous, obovoid-angular; testa covered with minute, red, sessile glands.

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    Shrub or small tree up to 8 m. tall; branches and rhachis of the inflorescence covered with rusty scales.

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    Flowers in terminal 8–50-flowered panicles or corymbs; bracts 5–10 mm. long, caducous; pedicels 8–10 mm. long, red-scaly, apex thickened and with 5–6 sessile glands.

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    Leaf-lamina 7.5–24 x 4–16 cm., ovate, apex long-acuminate, base cordate or truncate, densely scaly beneath at first, later glabrescent, 5-nerved from the base, petiole up to 12 cm. long, thickened at the base and apex.

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    Petals 5–7, unequal, obovate, obtuse or refuse, pinkish-white.

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    Sepals 10–12 mm. long, purplish, scaly, obovate, concave, blunt.

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    Ovary globose, with dense, red-blotched bristles; style 1.2–1.5 cm. long; stigma-lobes very short.

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    Anthers violet.

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    Distribution Map

     
    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Southern America Brazil Acre
    • Amapí
    • Amazonas
    • Parí
    • Rondônia
    • Roraima
    • Tocantins
    • Alagoas
    • Bahia
    • Ceará
    • Maranh
    • Paraába
    • Pernambuco
    • Piauá
    • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Sergipe
    • Paraní
    • Rio Grande do Sul
    • Santa Catarina
    • Espirito Santo
    • Minas Gerais
    • Rio de Janeiro
    • São Paulo
    • Brazilia Distrito Federal
    • Goiás
    • Mato Grosso
    • Mato Grosso do Sul

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    urucumPortuguese
    colorauPortuguese

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Bixaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • F Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Assessment
    http://www.bgci.org/
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • M Botanic Gardens Conservation International