Betula pendula Roth
  • Tent. Fl. Germ.
  • Silver birch

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2022): Betula pendula Roth. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 29 Jan 2022'

General Information

Trees to 25 m tall; bark grayish white, exfoliating in sheets. Branches usually pendulous, dark brown, slender, glabrous, shiny; branchlets brown, slender, glabrous, sparsely resinous glandular or not. Petiole slender, 2-3 cm; leaf blade triangular-ovate or rhombic-ovate, 3-7.5 × 1.5-6 cm, abaxially densely resinous punctate, adaxially glabrous, base truncate, broadly cuneate, or cuneate, margin coarsely or incised doubly serrate, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate; lateral veins 6-8 on each side of midvein. Female inflorescence oblong or oblong-cylindric, 1-3.3 cm × 8-10 mm; peduncle pendulous, 1-2 cm; bracts 5-6 mm, densely pubescent, ciliate, 3-lobed, middle lobe ovate or triangular-ovate, lateral lobes recurved, slightly longer than middle lobe. Nutlet obovate-elliptic, ca. 2 × 1 mm, sparsely pubescent, with membranous wings slightly longer than and ca. 2 × as wide as nutlet. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 28, (42), 56.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of China @
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Trees , to 25 m; trunks usually several, crowns spreading. Bark of mature trunks and branches creamy to silvery white, smooth, exfoliating as long strands; lenticels dark, horizontally expanded. Branches pendulous; twigs glabrous, usually dotted with small resinous glands. Leaf blade broadly ovate to rhombic with 5--18 pairs of lateral veins, 3--7 × 2.5--5 cm, base cuneate, rarely truncate, margins coarsely and sharply doubly serrate, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to sparsely pubescent, covered with minute, resinous glands. Infructescences erect to nearly pendulous, cylindric, 2--3.5 × 0.6--1 cm, shattering with fruits in fall; scales adaxially sparsely pubescent, lobes diverging at middle, central lobe obtuse, much shorter than lateral lobes, lateral lobes broad, rounded, extended. Samaras with wings much broader than body, broadest near center, extended beyond body apically. 2 n = 28, 56.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    "Occasionally escapes from cult. and would key to B. populifolia. It has drooping twigs; middle-sized trunks are beset with vertical, diamond-shaped, rough black marks that eventually coalesce."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 


    Bis 25 m hoher Baum. Rinde unten dunkel, oben glatt und weiss. Zweige ± hängend, kahl. Blätter rautenförmig bis 3eckig, lang zugespitzt, doppelt gezähnt, ausgewachsen kahl. Zähne 1. Ordnung mit feiner, oft einwärts gebogener Spitze. Männlich

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 


    4–5. Ufergelände, Torfmoore, Wälder, kollin-subalpin. CH.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

    • Native distribution
    Found in
    • Europe Northern Europe Ireland


    Nationally Preferred Names

    Silver birchEnglishIE

    Other Local Names

    Bouleau pendantFrenchCH
    Beith ghealIrishIE
    Beith charraigeachIrishIE
    Badugn pendusRaeto-RomanceCH
    Weeping birch, European white birch, silver birch, bouleau pleureur
    Betulla verrucosaItalianCH
    Beith chluasachIrishIE


     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora of China @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz
    Flora Helvetica – Illustrierte Flora der Schweiz, Konrad Lauber, Gerhart Wagner, Andreas Gygax. Haupt Verlag 2018.
    • C All Rights Reserved
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Irish Vernacular Names
    • F All Rights Reserved
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    International Union for Conservation of Nature v.3
    IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-1.
    • H See IUCN Terms and conditions of use
    Global Tree Search
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • I Botanic Gardens Conservation International
    International Union for Conservation of Nature
    IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2
    • J All Rights Reserved