Voacanga thouarsii Roem. & Schult.
  • Syst. Veg.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Voacanga thouarsii Roem. & Schult. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000333650. Accessed on: 25 Oct 2020'

Morphology

Flowers white waxy

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    The leaves crowded at the ends of the branches

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    Glabrous tree 20-30 ft.high

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    Branches with or without some large lenticels; branchlets glabrous or minutely puberulous, with much latex.

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    Leaves shortly petiolate; petiole 8–25 mm. long, glabrous or minutely puberulous at the base, those of a pair connate into a short ocrea (widened into intrapetiolar stipules), with a single row of colleters in the axils; lamina often slightly glaucous with the costa often pale, often thickly coriaceous (also when fresh), narrowly obovate or less often narrowly elliptic, 2–4 times as long as wide, 6–25 x 2–9 cm., obtuse or rounded, cuneate or decurrent into the petiole, glabrous and usually with numerous minute pits on both surfaces; secondary veins 12–20 on each side, inconspicuous in fresh leaves; tertiary venation inconspicuous.

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    Usually a small tree, 2–15(20) m. high; trunk terete, 4–40(80) cm. in diam., bark pale grey-brown, smooth, with small lenticels, with some white latex.

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    Seeds with orange aril, dark brown, obliquely ovoid or ellipsoid, 8–9·5 x 6-6·5 x 4–5 mm., rough, densely papillose and shallowly grooved all over.

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    Fruit of two free subglobose mericarps being slightly longer than wide and about as thick as wide, 4–10 cm. in diam., pale and dark green-spotted, also when mature, wall creamy inside and on section, 5(?)–15 mm. thick.

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    Flowers sweet-scented.

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    Calyx pale, to dark green, with hyaline margin, fleshy, clasping the corolla tube and shed together with the corolla, from abscission layer 13–25 mm. long, 7–13 mm. wide, outside minutely papilose except for the glabrous apices of the lobes, inside with several irregular rows of colleters in the lower half of the tube; tube barrel-shaped to cylindrical, 2·5–4 times as long as the lobes, 10-16 mm. long; lobes usually broadly ovate, 3–10 x 4–10 mm., rounded, entire, erect.

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    Corolla pale yellow with the tube often pale green, creamy, or white, carnose, in the mature bud 29–33 mm. long, incl. the lobes (the lobes 2/5–2/5 of the bud-length, being 13–19 x 10–13 mm., forming an almost conical head with a blunt apex), glabrous on both sides; tube as long as the calyx or slightly longer, almost cylindrical, 17–23 mm. long, twisted, widest around the ovary and there 5–8 mm. wide, contracted above, narrowest just below the insertion of the stamens and there 4–6 mm. wide, widened and thickened at the insertion of the stamens, inside with 5 small incrasations in the mouth (touching the connectives); lobes not twisted, broadly obcordate, 1·1–1·3 times as long as the tube, 1·2–1·5 times as wide as long, 19–30 x 28–43 mm., with basal portion about 3–5 x 3–5 mm., abruptly widened from there, at the apex emarginate, entire, spreading to recurved.

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    Stamens exserted for 2–3 mm. (seemingly more in dry specimens), inserted 3–4 mm. below mouth of the corolla; anthers sessile, narrowly triangular, 6–7 x 3 mm., acuminate at the sterile apex (sterile part 2 mm.), glabrous.

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    Pistil glabrous, approximately as long as the corolla tube, 17–23 mm. long; carpels 2, separate 2–3 x 2–3·5 x 1–1·7 mm., rounded, connected at the apex by the base of the style; style not split at the base, 12–19 x 1 mm., more or less gradually thickened at the apex; clavuncula capitate, 1–1·6 x 1–1·6 mm., with a ring 1·5–2 x 3·4 mm., being long-fimbriate at the base.

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    Disk annular, lower or higher than the ovary, 2–4·5 mm. high, shallowly to deeply 5-lobed.

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    Ovules about 80 in each carpel.

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    Peduncle 5–14 cm. long, stout, glabrous.

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    Inflorescences long-pedunculate, fairly lax, without peduncle 4–7 x 4–7 cm., few-flowered, monochasial or nearly so.

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    Bracts dediduous and leaving conspicuous scars, ovate, rounded at the apex, with a single row of large colleters in the axils; lower up to 10 x 7 mm., other smaller.

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    Pedicels 8-15 mm. long except for the thickened 2–5 mm. long apex, often mintuely puberulous above.

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    Tree 2–15(–20) m high; trunk terete, 4–40(–80) cm in diameter; bark pale grey brown, smooth, with small lenticels, and some white latex; branchlets glabrous or minutely puberulous, with much latex.

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    Leaves petiolate; blade narrowly obovate, 6–25 cm long, 2–9 cm wide, obtuse or rounded at the apex, attenuate at the base, glabrous, with numerous pits on both surfaces; petiole 8–25 mm long, glabrous or minutely puberulous at the base, ochrea widened into intrapetiolar stipules.

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    Fruits spotted pale and dark green, of two free subglobose mericarps, 4–10 cm in diameter; pericarp creamy in section, 5–15 mm thick; aril orange; seeds dark brown, obliquely ovoid or ellipsoid, 8–9.5 mm long, densely papillose and shallowly grooved all over.

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    Fig. 14 (p. 43).

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    Inflorescence up to 21 cm long corymbs, few-flowered; peduncle 5–20 cm long, stout, glabrous; bracts deciduous, ovate, apex rounded, up to 10 mm long; pedicels 8–15 mm long, minutely puberulous above.

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    Flowers sweetly scented; sepals connate for over half their length, fleshy, broadly ovate, rounded; tube often pale green, creamy or white, fleshy, almost cylindrical, 17–23 mm long, twisted; lobes pale yellow, broadly obcordate, not twisted, 19–30 mm long, 28–43 mm wide, narrowed at the base, emarginate at the apex; stamens barely exserted or included 3–4 mm below the mouth of the corolla; disk annular, 2–4.5 mm high, shallowly to deeply 5-lobed; pistil 17–23 mm long; ovary of free carpels, each with ± 80 ovules; style 12–19 mm long.

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    Tree 5-15 m high with all parts glabrous; sap milky. Leaves opposite and decussate, crowded towards the tips of the branches, subcoriaceous, dull when dry, oblong-oblanceolate, 8-16 cm long and 2.2-5.5 cm broad, base narrowly cuneate, apex broadly rounded or rarely obtuse, usually with scattered acarodomatia on the lower surface; secondary nerves 8-12 on each side, widely spreading, indistinct; petiole 0.8-2.2 cm long. Stipules small, united in an interpetiolar rim or short sheath; axillary glands present. Inflorescence usually arising in pairs, terminal, dense, few-flowered consisting of racemosely arranged reduced cymes; peduncle stout, 2.5-8 cm long; bracts broadly ovate, obtuse, early caducous. Flowers fairly large, up to 4.5 cm in diameter, fleshy, white to yellowish, unpleasantly scented; pedicels 5-7 mm long. Calyx wide tubular, 1-1.4 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, early circumscissile at the base with numerous glands within; lobes short, rounded, 3-4 mm long and 6-7 mm broad. Corolla salver-shaped, tube slightly longer than the calyx, subcylindric, slightly constricted above the middle, twisted above the constriction; lobes broadly obcordate, 1.5-2.2 cm long and 2 cm broad, overlapping to the left. Stamens 5, inserted near the corolla mouth, sessile with the filament reduced to a callus swelling; anthers lanceolate, sagittate, 5-6 mm long, exserted for half their length. Disc cupular entire or almost so, subequal to or exceeding the ovary, persistent. Ovary of 2 free carpels, glabrous; style columnar, thickened upwards, compressed, 10-12 mm long; stigma thickened, shortly cylindric, grooved, with a frill at the base, apex blunt. Fruit of usually 2 mericarps; mericarps baccate, globose, 7-9 em in diameter, with a thick coriaceous rind and sticky latex, smooth, green, mottled with whitish or yellowish spots, dehiscing longitudinally. Seeds numerous, yellow, embedded in a fleshy pulp, ovoid, often triquetrous, 8-11 mm long, grooved and deeply infolded ventrally, surface obscurely ruminate; embryo straight; cotyledons flat, elliptic; radicle slightly longer than the cotyledons; endosperm fleshy.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Ecology

    Forest areas.

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    Habitat

    Usually associated with open glades, stream banks or swampy places.

  • Provided by: [B].e-Flora of South Africa
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    Distribution

    In coastal forests of Natal and Pondoland. Mozambique and Angola, extending through tropical Africa to Tanganyika, Uganda and the Cameroons.

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     Information From

    Apocynaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • B All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Global Tree Search
    https://tools.bgci.org/global_tree_search.php
    BGCI. 2018. GlobalTreeSearch online database. Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Richmond, U.K. Available at www.bgci.org. Accessed on 30/11/2018.
    • G Botanic Gardens Conservation International