Elephantopus scaber L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 814 (1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Elephantopus scaber L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000016774. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2020'

General Information

Herbs, perennial, 20-60 cm tall. Rhizomes procumbent or obliquely ascending, with many fibrous roots. Stems erect, ± dichotomously branched, slightly scabrid, densely white adpressed hirsute. Basal leaves persistent by anthesis, rosulate, spatulate or oblanceolate, 5-18 × 2-4 cm, abaxially densely hirsute and glandular, adaxially sparsely hirsute, base gradually attenuate into short, broad petiole, margin crenate-serrate, apex rounded or shortly acute; cauline leaves few and small, oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, progressively smaller toward apex. Synflorescence densely aggregated in compound heads, surrounded by leaflike bracts; bracts broadly ovate or oblong-ovate, 1-1.5 × 0.5-1 cm, hirsute and glandular, with conspicuously raised veins, apex acuminate. Capitula many. Involucre narrow, 8-10 × ca. 2 mm; phyllaries green or apically purple-red, oblong-lanceolate, hirtellous and glandular, 1- or 3-veined, apex acuminate and spinescent, outer 4-5 mm, inner ca. 10 mm. Florets 4, herbaceous, purplish or pink; corolla 7-9 mm, tube 4-5 mm. Achenes oblong-linear, ca. 4 mm, angled, puberulent. Pappus sordid white, of 5(or 6) basally widened bristles, 4-5 mm. Fl. Jul-Nov. 2n = 22*.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Basal leaves mostly 7–62 x 1.5–10 cm., narrowly oblanceolate or ovate-elliptic, subacute or rounded at the apex, narrowly cuneate to long-attenuate below with the midrib becoming very narrowly winged or petiole-like, the base ± stem-clasping or shortly stem-sheathing, margins entire or sometimes serrulate-crenulate, lamina somewhat scabridulous to glabrescent with scattered patent 1–2 mm. long bristle-like hairs; cauline leaves 1–5, smaller than the basal leaves, sessile and ± stem-clasping, grading into ± conduplicate synflorescence bracts.

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    Stems 1-several, branching above, leafy below, densely hirsute, or ± strigose on upper stem and branches.

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    Florets c. 4 per capitulum.

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    Capitula sessile, crowded in glomerules 1.2–3 cm. in diam.; glomerules terminal on few-many stiff synflorescence branches 3–11 cm. long, or sometimes several glomerules ± scorpioidly arranged along a branch, glomerule-subtending bracts 3–5, ovate, leaf-like, ± equalling the glomerules in length.

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    An erect tough hirsute perennial herb to c. 130 cm. tall, with scapiform annual stems from a woody rootstock; roots numerous, thong-like.

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    Phyllaries usually 2-seriate with c. 4 phyllaries in each series, oblong-lanceolate, cartilaginous with pungent apices and membranous margins, strigose or ± densely hispid where exposed, or glabrous; the inner phyllaries 7–9 mm. long, nearly twice as long as the outer.

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    Involucres 7–10 x 2–3 mm., narrowly ovoid-cylindric.

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    Achenes 3–4 mm. long, narrowly turbinate-cylindric, c. 10-ribbed, setulose mainly on the ribs; pappus of 7–10 elements 3.5–6 mm. long, overlapping scale-like below and gradually tapering into a subterete barbellate seta.

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    Corollas mauve, 4.5–7 mm. long, narrowly funnel-shaped, 5-lobed but more deeply cleft down one side, glandular at the lobe apices otherwise glabrous.

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    Basal leaves oblanceolate or elliptic, 6–60 cm long, 1.5–10 cm wide, attenuate into a petioloid base, this often reddish, the very base shortly clasping the stem, minutely denticulate or crenulate-serrulate, apex acute to obtuse; stem leaves few, sessile, lanceolate to panduriform, clasping the stem, 3–17 cm long, 0.7–5 cm wide, grading into the conduplicate inflorescence bracts; all leaves thinly to densely pilose above and beneath, often feeling scabridulous.

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    Capitula crowded in glomerules 1–3 cm in diameter; glomerules in terminal lax corymbiform bracteate cymes; stalks of glomerules 3–11 cm long; outer bracts of glomerules 3–5, pale green with white hairs, ovate-lanceolate to broadly ovate, 0.6–2.6 cm long, acuminate; phyllaries lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, acuminate, 6.3–10 mm long.

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    Perennial herb, subscapose, with long fibrous roots, woody rootstock and rosette of leaves; stems 1–several, arising from the basal rosette, pilose with patent or ascending hairs, 0.2–1.5 m tall.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fig. 55.

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    Corolla subligulate with deep adaxial sinus and 4 shorter abaxial sinuses between the lobes, mauve, pale mauve to white, 3.8–7 mm long, lobes 1.3–2.5 mm long, glandular.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Achenes fusiform, 10-ribbed, 2.8–4 mm long, shortly ascending-pubescent; pappus scales lanceolate, (5–)7–10, attenuate, 1.2–4.8(–6) mm long.

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     Information From

    Compositae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).