Lactuca serriola L.
  • Cent. Pl.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Lactuca serriola L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000015140. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2020'

General Information

"Leafy-stemmed annual or biennial, 3–15 dm, the stem often prickly below, otherwise glabrous; lvs prickly on the midrib beneath, and more finely prickly-toothed on the margins, otherwise generally glabrous, pinnately lobed or lobeless, commonly twisted at base to stand vertically, sagittate-clasping, oblong or oblong-lanceolate in outline, the upper much reduced; heads numerous in a long, often diffuse infl, with (13–)18–24(–27) light yellow fls, drying blue; invol 10–15 mm in fr; achenes gray or yellowish-gray, the body compressed, 3–4 mm, a third as wide, prominently several-nerved on each face, spinulose or hispidulous above at least marginally, the slender beak about equaling the body, rarely twice as long; 2n=18. A weed in fields and waste places; native of Europe, now naturalized throughout most of the U.S. July–Sept. The common form with lobeless lvs, called var. integrata Gren. & Gordon, may reflect introgression from L. sativa L., cultivated lettuce, with which L. serriola hybridizes freely. (L. scariola)"

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Diagnostic Description

    The native L. dregeana DC. is very like L. serriola but is distinguished by at least the upper stem leaves being lanceolate, not pinnately divided. It seems to be confined to the drier parts of the northern Cape and O.F.S.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Morphology

    Leaves ± appressed to the stem, sessile, usually up to 10 x 6 cm., exceptionally to 20 x 10 cm., broadly elliptic in outline and runcinate-pinnate, or some leaves undivided and oblong-oblanceolate; lateral lobes 2–6, narrowly to broadly oblong, recurved; apices rounded to obtuse mucronate; margins irregularly denticulate and ± sinuate-dentate; bases sagittate-auriculate, the auricle lobes up to c. 2 cm. long and narrowly pointed; lamina glabrous but midribs beneath often weakly to strongly spinulose.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Synflorescences paniculate, divaricately branched; branches up to 23 cm. long, glabrous; capitula on slender, bracteate stalks up to c. 4 cm. long.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Involucre 6–8 mm. long and cylindric at time of flowering, increasing to 13 x 3.5 mm. and becoming conical in fruiting capitula.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Phyllaries glabrous, c. 2 mm. long outside increasing to c. 13 mm. long inside becoming narrowly lanceolate, margins becoming involute.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    An erect annual or biennial herb up to 2.5 m. tall.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Stems solitary, robust, simple below and branching above, glabrous to ± densely spinulose in the lower part, sometimes strongly so, leafy.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Florets c. 14 per capitulum; corollas yellow, c. 9 mm. long, tubes slender, ± densely pilose about the mouth; ligules erect, c. 5 mm. long, lorate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Achenes pale- or greyish-brown; beaks paler, equalling or exceeding the achene in length; achene 3 x 1 mm., oblanceolate, somewhat laterally compressed, broadly-ribbed on the margins and narrowly c. 5-ribbed on each face, hispidulous towards the apices; pappus several-seriate of numerous white, barbellate setae c. 4 mm. long, free on the apically expanded beak.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Annual or biennial herb, up to 2 m high. Achenes up to 1 mm broad, each face closely and equally ribbed; beak longer than body of achene. Involucre up to 12 mm long. Flowers pale yellow.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Biennial or perennial herb, up to 2 m high; plant with milky latex. Leaves alternate, sessile; blade up to 200 x 100 mm, broadly elliptic in outline, runcinate-pinnate, lateral lobes 2-6, recurved, apices rounded to obtuse mucronate, margins irregularly denticulate and ± sinuate-dentate, base sagittate-auriculate, auricles narrowly pointed, some leaves undivided, oblong-obovate; glabrous but midrib on lower surface often spinulose. Heads ligulate, many in lax, pyramidal panicle. Involucre 6-8 mm long and cylindric, increasing up to 13 x 3.5 mm in fruiting; involucral bracts in several series, imbricate. Flowers: pale yellow; Oct.-Jan. Fruit with cypsela pale or greyish brown, narrowly obovate, laterally compressed, up to 3 x 1 mm, broadly ribbed on margins, each face closely and equally ± 5-ribbed, hispidulous towards apices, with beak longer than body of cypsela. Pappus of many, white, barbellate bristles.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Glabrous biennial or perennial herb with one or several stiffly erect leafy stems to 2 m from a single crown, often prickly near the base. Leaves up to 20 x 10 cm, decreasing in size upwards, runcinate-pinnatifid, only the very topmost lanceolate and less deeply cut, base sagittate-amplexicaul, spinose-ciliate on the margins and prickly on the main veins below. Heads many in a large, loose pyramidal panicle with stiff, patent branches. Involucre up to 12 x 5 mm. Flowers pale yellow. Achenes c. 3 mm long with a 5 mm beak, narrowly obovate tapering sharply into the beak, strongly compressed, finely and evenly ribbed on both faces, greyish.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Habitat

    Weed along roadsides and in waste places on outskirts of towns.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Vredefort Dome Savanna; Dry Grassland; Dwarf Karroid Shrubland. Weed along roadsides and in waste places on outskirts of towns.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Found as a weed along roadsides and in waste places on the outskirts of towns in the S.W. and eastern Cape, East Griqualand and around Pretoria, and in the O.F.S. and Lesotho. In Natal, recorded from the Durban and Pietermaritzburg areas and the outskirts of Estcourt, Colenso, Ladysmith and Dundee, and possibly more widespread than herbarium records suggest.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Native to Europe and Asia.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Native to Europe, Asia and North Africa.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    A native of Europe, W. Asia and N. Africa from the Canary Islands to Ethiopia, now a widespread weed, introduced into southern Africa.

  • Provided by: [C].e-Flora of South Africa
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Distribution Map

     
    • Introduced distribution
    Introduced into
    • Southern America Brazil Rio Grande do Sul

      Bibliography

    • 1 Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992
    • 2 "Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp."
    • 3 Cent. Pl.
    • 4 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E. 1997. Plants of thenorthern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6: 1 - 681. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • 5 Herman, PPJ; Retief, E; Meyer, NL. 2017. Asteraceae. In: E Retief & NL Meyer (eds), Plants of the Free State: Inventory and identification guide. Strelitzia 38: 249 - 413. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
    • 6 Hilliard, OM. 1977. Compositae in Natal. Univ. Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

     Information From

    Compositae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    e-Flora of South Africa
    e-Flora of South Africa. v1.21. 2018. South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://ipt.sanbi.org.za/iptsanbi/resource?r=flora_descriptions&v=1.21
    • C All Rights Reserved
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020
    http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br
    Brazil Flora G (2014): Brazilian Flora 2020 project - Projeto Flora do Brasil 2020. v393.147. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro. Dataset/Checklist. doi:10.15468/1mtkaw
    • E Group Brazil Flora, REFLORA Program
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).